WM missionary to New Zealand, born a Presbyterian in Edinburgh. A trained teacher, he taught in both Scotland and England before entering the ministry. In New Zealand he took charge of the Native Training Institution in Auckland and was its Principal for ten years, earning for high esteem with the government. His success with the Maori students led to his appointment to Waipa in Northland 1858-63, followed by 21 years in major circuits. He was President of the Conference in 1876, having been its Secretary for two years and a District Chairman for six. He attended the first Oecumenical Methodist Conference in 1882. He ended his ministry at the Three Kings College (1885-1891), near Auckland, which had reopened for the training of both European and Maori students for the ministry. He died on 25 August 1891.