Village blacksmith at Micklefield, Yorks. Born into a poor family at nearby Aberford, he received little education and was apprenticed at 14. He heard John Nelson preach in Aberford and John Wesley in Leeds, but came to a conversion experience following the later death of his mother-in-law. Becoming a local preacher, he built up the societies around Aberford, Garforth and Barwick, where his simple enthusiasm led to a notable ministry. As his popularity spread he was in demand farther afield and in his closing years spent much time in London in support of the missionary movement. His chief appeal lay in the transparent simplicity and cheerfulness of his faith.