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In the early years of Welsh Wesleyan Methodism the town of Rhyl did not exist. The first Wesleyan to preach in the area in Welsh was John Maurice in the house of Thomas Hughes in 1802. Others who preached at the house were Edward Jones (Bathafarn) and John Hughes. Shortly afterwards a Welsh Wesleyan Society was formed. When Richard Hughes with his bride joined the Rhyl Welsh Wesleyan Society in 1820 the work increased. In 1814 a Society was meeting in a house in Rhyl. Around 1831 Rhyl was developing into a holiday resort and on 28 August 1831 the Society moved into their new chapel. When in 1853 Rhyl had become a well-established ‘watering-place’ a site was bought in Sussex Street and a large chapel was built. This was succeeded in 1872 by a larger chapel built in Brighton Road. Rhyl was in the Holywell, then Llanasa Circuit, then in the Denbigh Circuit. In 1866 Rhyl was the head of the new Rhyl (Welsh) circuit with Rev William Hugh Evans as the Superintendent. As Rhyl developed as a seaside holiday resort the English Wesleyan mission started around 1861 when the Llandudno & Rhyl (English) Circuit was established. When Rev Edward Crump visited Rhyl in September 1862, he found a small English Class under the leadership of Mr Bell meeting in the Welsh Wesleyan Chapel. He was told that the tenure would end at the end of the month. The Society then moved to Mr Astle’s upper room reached by an outside stairway from the beach road. In the Spring of 1863 the growing congregation moved to the Rhyl Town Hall which was unpopular with many residents who tried but failed to get the services stopped. The Society prospered and they opened their own chapel designed by C. O. Ellison of Liverpool in Bath Street on 28th June 1868 in Bath. The chapel was in part financed by Punshon, William Morley, LL.D's Watering Places Fund. In 1878 Mrs (Dr) Morley Punshon laid a memorial stone for the new Punshon Sunday School and Manse in August 1878. This listed building closed in December 2006 when several of the members transferred to Rhuddlan English Methodist Church meeting in the Welsh Wesleyan Chapel. Rhuddlan Welsh Wesleyan Chapel was built in Gwindy Street in 1832 and a larger chapel was built in 1910 on the same site following a fire and named it y Tabernacl. As the English-speaking population grew an English Methodist Society was formed on 1st May 1932 who continued to hold services in English in the Rhuddlan Welsh Wesleyan chapel until 1956 when they moved the Conservative Room in Parliament Street and later to the Welsh Baptist chapel before returning to y Tabernacl in 1967. In late 1990’s the Welsh Wesleyan Society closed, and the building was transferred from the Welsh Wesleyan Circuit to the English Methodist Circuit and continues to be the Methodist Church serving the Rhuddlan and Rhyl area.

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Doreen Emily Woodford was an advocate of the rights of deaf people in Britain and the developing world. She was born on the 18 February 1926 in Wandsworth, London to a deaf father and a hearing mother. Her grandfather was also deaf. She was born hearing but became deaf. Being an only child, in a deaf household her first language was deaf signing followed by speech. Doreen’s family were good caring Plymouth Brethren people who struggled on a merger income. Doreen from a young age was a determined, independent minded driven homo sapiens – wise person. From her Christian upbringing she held firmly all her life both to the teachings of the faith and its practical social concern for people. Obstacles were seen not as an unsurmountable wall but a challenge. Whilst a child she raised chickens to provide pocket money her parents couldn’t give her. In 1941 Doreen left school aged 15 and trained in childcare at Barnardo’s. During WWII many qualified teachers were conscripted into the armed forces and Doreen was persuaded to help teach deaf children. A pivotal moment came when Doreen moved to Southport and met deaf people at the Southport Deaf Club. Her plans for her future changed in 1944 when she went to teach at the Crown Street School for the Deaf, Liverpool which had been evacuated to Southport. Seeing the quality and dedication of Doreen the head teacher, Frank Denmark, in 1945 insisted that she took training and opened the way for her to go to Manchester University to study under Professor Ewing. In 1950 she became a Certificated Teacher of the Deaf. Doreen’s next appointment at the Royal School for Deaf Children in Margate was key. It was at this school that she opened the first class for teaching children with multiple disabilities. At the school there were Tanzania and India deaf children who were sent by wealthy parents. Doreen became the guardian of two Tanzanian boys. When in the late 1950s she visited their family home in city of Mtwara she became aware that children in developing countries had little opportunity to attend school and she resolved to do something about it. In 1969 she was appointed a teacher at the Alice Elliott School Liverpool. In 1975 she was became a teacher at the Summerfield School in Malvern and ended her working career as the adviser for sensory deprived children at a primary school in Haringey. Doreen who had signed even before she could speak had a constant battle as a teacher to get signing used as a teaching language. In the late 19th century signing was used as a teaching language but the Milan 1880 ‘Second International congress on the Education of the Deaf’ passed 2 condemning resolutions. The resolutions were probably influenced by the outspoken condemnation by Alexander Graham Bell who argued for a complete ban of sign language. The Conference passed two resolutions. 1. ‘The Convention, considering the incontestable superiority of articulation over signs in restoring the deaf-mute to society and giving him a fuller knowledge of language, declares that the oral method should be preferred to that of signs in the education and instruction of deaf-mutes. The second resolution underpinned the first by declaring that The Convention, considering that the simultaneous use of articulation and signs has the disadvantage of injuring articulation and lip-reading and the precision of ideas, declares that the pure oral method should be preferred. This attitude in the educational profession persisted until the 1960’s. When Doreen was awarded the ‘Mary Grace Wilkins Travelling Scholarship’ she forthrightly chose to research the place of sign language and the quality of its presentation and use in the classroom. Doreen’s extra-curricular activities included becoming the leader of Girl Guide troops for the deaf. Not only did she introduce the girls to the Guiding principles and activities she gave then an appetite for adventure and to be self-reliant. She became an active member of the Trefoil Guild and wrote Seventy-Five Remarkable Years A Record of Deaf People and the Girl Guide Movement 1910-1985. Doreen was a founding member of the British Deaf History Society and wrote several books. In 1982 Doreen was awarded the Diploma of Chaplains for the Deaf. She also took the Royal Life Saving Society training course which she passed and was awarded an Instructor’s Certificate. She was an enthusiastic member and secretary of the Shropshire Wesley Historical Society. Throughout her career Doreen campaigned for the recognition of the profession of Teachers of the Deaf, and published material for training purposes. She promoted the work and recognition of Teachers of the Deaf by having high level meetings with professionals and decision makers in Government. In 1981 Doreen became the chair of BATOD [British Association of Teachers of the Deaf] which she helped to get established. She regularly wrote articles in their magazine and was in demand as a lecturer. When Doreen had to retire in 1986 aged 60 her enthusiasm to teach, support, pastor and inspire deaf children opened new opportunities. She studied for and received in 1987 a Postgraduate Diploma in Language in the Multi-Racial Community In 1985 she helped start the ‘Initiatives for Deaf Education in Developing Countries’ This organisation with members from the UK and 20 African and Asian countries held workshops and conferences supporting the deaf. Doreen established the charitable society ‘Allah Kariem [God provides] which became better known as ‘Friends of the Holy Land Institute for the Deaf’ Its aim was to aid work with deaf and deafblind in Jordan and the Middle East. As one of four founder members Doreen was honoured to have the Woodford Foundation named after her. The Foundation has projects in parts of Tanzania, Uganda and Malawi. The Much Wenlock Methodist Church was packed to overflowing at her funeral both with her friends and many representatives of the Deaf Teaching profession and the charities she supported.

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Edward James Alexander Tull was a mixed heritage dentist in Glasgow. He was born in 1886 at 57 Walton Road, Folkestone, Kent. His paternal grandparents were William Criss and Anna who were enslaved Moravians on the Clifton Estate Barbados. They spent their spare time teaching their fellow slaves to read and write. When William and Anna were liberated William changed his name to Tull. William and Anna gave birth to Daniel (1856-1897) who trained as a carpenter and joiner. In 1876 William worked his way to England as a ship’s carpenter. Shortly after his arrival in England in 1877 Daniel wrote a journal giving an insight into his early life in Barbados and St Lucia. When he settled in Folkestone as a carpenter he joined the Grace Hill Wesleyan Methodist Chapel where he met his future wife Alice Elizabeth Palmer (c.1853-1895), a farm worker’s daughter. During their tragically short marriage they had six children, Bertha 1881 who died in infancy, William 1882, Cecelia 1884 [Cissie], Edward 1886, Walter 1888, Elsie 1891 (later Seward BEM). A year after Alice had died he married her cousin Clara Alice Susannah Palmer. They had one child Miriam (later Kingsland) who was born 11 September 1897. Three months later Daniel died of a heart attack. Miriam found it impossible to cope with looking after five step children and Miriam so it was arranged that the two youngest boys Edward and Walter to be placed in the National Children's Home (NCH) Bonner Road, Bethnal Green, London. Edward enjoyed singing and soon joined the Bethnal Green NCH choir. On several occasions the choir toured to several parts of the UK giving concerts to raise money for the home. As a devout Methodist, Edward’s love of singing would stay with him throughout his life, culminating in him leading the choir at his local church many years later. His rich baritone voice was regularly heard at concerts in Scottish concert halls and other venues. On one occasion the choir was performing in Glasgow in 1900. In the audience was Mr James Kay Warnock (1856-1914) with his wife Jennie (1863-) Jennie’s brother James Aitken was a dentist in Glasgow. Jennie and her brother James Aitken had been orphaned and were raised in a poorhouse in Kirkintilloch. James K. Warnock was a highly skilled block printer but decided to become an apprentice dentist to his brother in law James Aitken. Once trained he eventually opening his own dental practice. The minister of the Claremont Street Wesleyan Church, Glasgow described Warnock’s practice as "whose clientele is mainly among the poorer people" The Warnocks adopted Edward, changed his name to Tull-Warnock and promised to educate him and "treat him as a son". Although this meant him being separated from his brother Walter they regularly wrote to each other . In 1903 the Warnocks sent 52 shillings to Walter for the train fare to come to stay with them for a holiday. Edwards adoptive parents were eager to give him a good education so they sent him to the Allan Glen Boys’ School, Glasgow. He quickly showed an academic capacity and like his brother he showed an aptitude for football. In 1906 Edward entered the Incorporated Glasgow Dental Hospital where he became an outstanding student, and won prizes for his operative work. On leaving the hospital he went to the Glasgow Royal Infirmary to learn anaesthesia. He graduated in 1910 with LDS [Licentiate in Dental Surgery] With his graduate qualifications now granted Edward applied for a post as an assistant dentist in Birmingham. With wise awareness he sent with his application a photograph of himself. When Edward arrival at the surgery his new employer looking at the man of colour before him is reported to have said: ‘My God, you’re coloured! You’ll destroy my practice in 24 hours!’ He was not employed. Disappointed but nor undeterred Edward returned to Glasgow and joined his father’s practice. When in 1914 James K. Warnock died Edward took over the practice. Later he worked in Aberdeen where he met Elizabeth Elliot Hutchison (-1963) who he married on 30th September 1918 Edward Tull-Warnock is recognised as one of Britain’s first Black professional dentists. He qualified in 1912, and was entered onto the Dentist Register in 1913. Edward understood and promoted the importance of preventative dentistry. He was an advocate for a balanced diet. He became aware that the fad for confectionary was a dangerous factor in poor dental health. He encouraged regular dental hygiene and dental examinations. His strong support for the National Health Service came in part as he remembered, with horror, the tragic practice of some of the poorer Glaswegians who sent their young children to his surgery with 6d and a message from their parents to extract as many teeth as sixpence could pay for. Edward was a keep sportsman which included football and golf. He played football for the Ayr Parkhouse Football Club and Girvan Athletic Football Club. He was a member of the Turnberry Golf Club winning several championship trophies. Edward remained in contact with his siblings and his sister Cissie [Cecelia] came to live with him and Elizabeth. Edward and Elizabeth had one child, a daughter Jean who married Rev Duncan Finlayson (1917-2012) and had 4 children Pat, Duncan, Edward and Iona. There are at least seven members of Edward’s extended family who became dentists. Edward’s adopted cousin, Benjamina Aitken, was one of Scotland's earliest female Licentiates in Dental Surgery who graduated in 1929. At St Bartholomew’s and the London School of Medicine there is a prestigious Edward Tull-Warnock dental scholarship which is open to African/Caribbean dental or oral hygiene therapy students in the BDS or BSc Oral Health Programmes.

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John Buchanan was born in Glasgow on 14 July 1908 to John Buchanan (1877-1950) and Bertha Jane nee Hoare (1880-1966). He was frustrated by his severely disabled arms which made him become a rather wild young boy. He was born with 2 imperfectly formed fingers where his left hand should have been. His right arm ended with a stump at the elbow. Shortly after John was born his parents move to Fleet in Hampshire. With the birth of other children their mother found it increasingly difficult to give John junior the extra care and attention he needed. It was suggested that John should be placed in the care of the National Children's Home (NCH). Being so severely disabled this was not straightforward. He was examined by a Harley Street physician who did not give a very encouraging report. He concluded ‘Here is a lad who in all probability will never be able to earn his own living.’ The physician warned the NCH officials that John’s disabilities were so extensive that they may be greater than the home could deal with. However at the age of 9 John was admitted to the National Children’s Home Branch for Crippled Children at Chipping Norton. When John entered the Chipping Norton Home he was almost monosyllabic. Soon he settled into school routine and the reports showed him to be intelligent and likable. Against all expectations John learned to hold a pen and then a paintbrush in his stump and disformed 2 fingers which amazed his teachers.

When John showed, despite his great disabilities, that he had a flair for art the Chipping Norton Home arranged for him to be enrolled on the General Art Course of the Oxford School of Art. This meant that John had to get up very early and travel the 21 miles to Oxford and return to Chipping Norton around 7 30 in the evening. John soon showed that his special genius was in his exceptional sense of colour and his artistry in being able to produce superbly bordered texts which he sent to NCH Sister Lucy in London which she sold at first for 3 pence but as his artistic competence grew so did the price of the illustrations. After leaving the Chipping Norton Home at 16 he moved to London with the money he had raised by his art and set up his studio. When John was 17 Lord Montagu saw some of his work and was so impressed that he sent him a gift. This was soon followed by a commission from Lord Montagu for John to copy on stiff board extracts from the family deed going back to King John. In 1926 he attained recognition at the Royal Society of Arts when his work was displayed at the Imperial Institute South Kensington. He was awarded the Major Frank Wedgwood First Prize. He was invited by Queen Mary to paint her Christmas Cards. When Lady Lucy, the widow of Sir Henry William Lucy, J.P. was shown the copy of the Illuminated Ladies’ Association of the National Children’s Home book and heard how the NCH had nurtured John she gave them £1000 to start a scholarship fund to assist children in their care to go to university or to enter one of the major professions. When the NCH formed the ‘League of Light’ scheme they asked John to design a special collecting box. He designed what became the successful iconic lantern with the message of light in a dark world.. John’s illuminated texts were used during WW2 to raise money for the war effort. His work can be seen in many books and places including Liverpool Cathedral In January 1940 at Hendon, Middlesex, John Married Edith Jane Jones (1904-2004) a young child care worker he met whilst visiting the Alverstoke branch of the NCH. They adopted a baby girl. They lived at 10 Pasture Road, Wembley, Middlesex. John died on12 January 1953 and his funeral service was conducted by Waterhouse, John Walters, OBE the Principal of the National Children’s Home. In 1954 The John Buchanan Memorial Hall at the Chipping Norton Branch was opened by John’s widow, Edith Jane Buchanan. In 1955 the NCH opened the first NCH home in Scotland, Cathkin House, Rutherglen, Glasgow, in memory of John Buchanan and with an anonymous gift given in John’s memory

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Chemist whose contribution to the study of biochemistry and nutrition of children in the early twentieth century was of international importance. Evelyn M. Hickmans was born on 9 April 1882 to Mary Elizabeth Hickmans nee Parsons (1850-1922) and David Hickmans (1856-1928) in Coseley, a mining village, in the Staffordshire Black Country. Her father was an elementary school master who moved the family to Codsall, Staffordshire, and started a milk contracting business. Going into partnership with a member of the Trinity Wesleyan Church, Wolverhampton. the business grew and became known as Hickmans and Mould, Wolverhampton. Son Wilfred Hickmans joined the business as a milk steriliser and later became the Company secretary and director. The family became members and officers of the Penn Road, Wesleyan Chapel, Wolverhampton. On 21 May 1925 Evelyn M Hickmans laid one of the foundation stones of Beckminster Wesleyan Sunday School. Evelyn remained a member of the Methodist Church until she died and was a benefactor of the Trinity Methodist Church, Compton Road, Wolverhampton.

After receiving her early schooling probably from her father and the local schools in Coseley and Codsall, in her late teens Evelyn attended evening classes at the Wolverhampton and Staffordshire Science and Technical School in Garrick Street and in 1902 she was awarded the high accolade of ‘Chief Student’. As a result of the excellence of her matriculation subjects mathematics and chemistry she was awarded the Mander scholarship (£24 per annum) to attend Birmingham University. She was awarded a B Sc in science and chemistry in 1905 and a M Sc the following year. Even though she had her degrees and her work on the isomeric forms of methyl esters of mandelic acid published she could not find work. In 1908 she went to King’s College London to study household science which led her to investigate nutrition. The outcome of this study led to her being invited to help establish the new Department of Household Science at Toronto University. WW1 intervened and she could not take up her post as lecturer in applied chemistry and dietetics until 1920. Her time at the university was cut short by her mother’s illness and untimely death. Although she was invited back to the university she remained in England. Evelyn’s cousin and fellow Wesleyan Dr Leonard Parsons (later knighted for medical research) was the paediatrician at the Birmingham Children’s Hospital where he was researching child wasting disorders. He asked Evelyn to join him and to establish chemical tests on children. Her reputation grew and in 1925 was invited to give a lecture at the influential Annual Conference for the Teachers of Domestic Science in Bath. Her presentation was based on her research into the diets of undernourished infants. This research was rewarded by Birmingham University with a PhD. Her ground breaking work led to the founding on 15 December 1949 of the Midlands Association of Clinical Biochemists with Evelyn as the first chairman. Evelyn was a leading advocate of the national Association which was formed in 1953. In 1951 a 2 year old child called Sheila Jones was diagnosed with a rare and untreatable inherited condition Phenylketonuria (PKU) Her distressed and tenacious mother Mary would not accept that there was no treatment and put pressure of Evelyn and her team to find a remedy. Evelyn with a visiting German doctor, Dr Horst Bickel along with Dr John Gerrard showed that the disease was treatable. Sheila Jones was the first child to receive dietary treatment for PKU and lived until 1999. Evelyn’s work led to world-wide interest in the prevention of other forms of mental retardation and the world wide introduction of the screening of new-born children. Hickmans, Bickel and Gerrard were awarded the highly regarded international ‘John Scott Award’ from Philadelphia in 1962. Dr Hickmans was a Soroptimist. She was also a founder member of the Association of University Women - Wolverhampton Evelyn died on 16 January 1972 and Trinity Methodist Church, Wolverhampton was filled for her funeral.

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Politician and international socialist, born in Bristolon 15 May 1891, son of a lithographic printer. On leaving school he became a Civil Servant. A Methodist by upbringing, through the Liberal Christian League he came into contact with the Liberal Party, but his political education caused him to cease to be a Methodist member by 1912, and he ultimately became a humanist. Politically, he moved to the Independent Labour Party and was an absolutist conscientious objector in the First World War, suffering imprisonment from September 1916 to April 1919. As a result he could no longer work as a Civil Servant. His trade union activities saw his appointment as the Secretary of the National Union of Docks, Wharves and Shipping Staff, which in 1922 became a constituent part of the Transport and General Workers Union. In the same year he was elected to the London County Council as a Labour councillor for Peckham. He also became a governor of Ruskin College, Oxford. In the 1929 general election he stood unsuccessfully for Heywood and Radcliffe but was elected MP for Shipley in 1935 only to lose the seat in 1950. An acknowledged expert on colonial affairs, he served in the Colonial Office from 1945, first as parliamentary under-secretary and then as Secretary of State. He played a significant part in preparing British dependencies for political independence. In 1951 he failed to be elected for Romford in the general election, but was returned for Wakefield in a by-election in 1954, continuing in parliament until ill-health compelled his resignation ten years later. He died at Lambeth on 23 October 1964.

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Sheffield manufacturer, baptised at Masbrough, Rotherham, 12 January 1834, his parents being William Skelton (1812-1880) and Elizabeth (1812-1882). In 1855 he founded a business in Sheffield manufacturing shovels, forks, picks, and other engineering and garden tools. In 1870 a former quarry was purchased and here Sheafbank Works was built. The busines became a private limited company in 1902. In 1962 in a company merger formed Brades, Skelton & Fryzack, which in turn became part of Spearwell Tools in 1967. A Liberal in politics, he served on Sheffield council for thirty-three years, was mayor in 1894 and deputy mayor in 1896, the year he was knighted. As a Methodist New Connexion Guardian Representative, he attended the first United Methodist Conference in 1907. He was buried in Norton Cemetery, Sheffield, on 1 October 1913.

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A member of a staunch WM family of corn merchants at Poulton-le-Fylde, born on 20 May 1881, he was the son of William and Agnes Ormond Parkinson. Educated at Barnes's Grammar School, Poulton-le-Fylde and Claremont College, Blackpool. He became a Local Preachers at 20, especially in north Lancashire, and became President of the Local Preachers' Mutual Aid Association in 1928 and again in 1942. He was Vice-Presidency of the Conference in 1938. He set up in business as Parkinson & Tomlinson, corn and oatmeal millers, and seed merchants. He was seen as an expert on agricultural questions. In politics a Liberal, at 24 in 1905 he was elected to Poulton-le-Fylde Urban District Council continuing until his death, six times being its Chairman and for 30 years Chairman of the Finance Committee. In 1925 he stood unsuccessfully for Fylde, took Lancaster in a by-election in 1928 but lost the seat in 1929; he failed to regain the seat in a further attempt in 1935. Other public service included being Vice-Chairman of Fylde Water Board, Chairman of Preston, Garstang and Fylde Joint Hospital Board, membership of Lancashire County Licensing Committee and Lancashire Agricultural Wages Board. Never marrying, he died at Thurnham on 3 June 1943.

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Businessman and politician, brought up in a Bath orphanage until the age of two and then adopted by a Cornish couple, his adopted father being a butcher and fisherman, his mother a hairdresser. With a Methodist background he won a scholarship to Truro School. At fifteen his adopted father wanted him to take an apprenticeship in the Falmouth Dockyards but instead he trained as a teacher at Southlands College from 1966 to 1969. He returned for an additional year in 1970, achieving a rare first-class honours degree in the London University B.Ed. For a short time, he worked as a secondary teacher for the Inner London Education Authority at a Wandsworth girls’ school. Deciding that teaching was not for him, he turned to finance, working at the Daily Telegraph as a financial journalist and then going to Rothschilds in 1974. In 1985 he became a pension fund manager for the Gartmore Group and was chairman from 1987 to 2001. From 2001 he held a series of high-profile appointments, including chairing the Guardian Media Group, Marks & Spencer, and the board of the Tate Gallery, and serving as Chancellor of the University of Exeter. Known as a liberal outsider in the City, Myners chaired the Low Pay Commission from 2006 until 2008 and was president of the Howard League for Penal Reform from 2012. Although never a Labour Party member, in the context of the financial crisis in 2008 he was appointed Financial Services Secretary to the Treasury and given a life peerage, helping with the £400bn bank rescue. He resigned the Labour whip in 2014 on joining the board of the Cooperative Group. He died on 16 January 2022 in London.

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Born at Peatling Magna, Leics, son of a doctor who died in the diphtheria epidemic he was treating during the early 1880s. He won a scholarship to Rydal School, Colwyn BayRydal Penrhos School, Colwyn Bay, and London University. He trained for the Wesleyan ministry at Richmond CollegeRichmond College, London, returning there in 1920 as its first tutor in philosophy after circuit work in Chichester and South London. He was appointed Professor of the Philosophy of Religion at London University in 1931 and served as principal of Richmond College from 1940 until his retirement in 1951. In 1928 he had been made Representative on the Faculty of Theology at the University of London, with a place on the university Senate. He became Chairman of the Board of Studies in Theology in 1932 and served as the university’s deputy vice-chancellor during 1936-37. These posts, forging close links between college and faculty, meant - as the Methodist Recorder pointed out in his obituary - that “Richmond has never stood higher in an academic sense than during his association with it”. But his role as an educator stretched much further than college curricula. Embracing both philosophy and psychology, which he spoke and wrote about from a religious perspective but with eyes wide open to society, Eric Waterhouse unpicked twentieth-century myth and mystery in a way understandable to the average reader. Although a man of strong personal opinions he sought intellectual balance in a steady flow of publications beginning with The Psychology of the Christian Life in 1913, when a circuit minister at Hither Green. He was not so much a creative thinker as a populariser in the best sense, making complex issues available to all who cared to read or listen. He was an early broadcaster. A series of BBC Sunday evening talks, transmitted from Daventry and London in the late 1920s and early 1930s, increased by popular demand. His 1930 book, Psychology & Religion, was derived from the first series. It was published, he wrote in the preface, because listeners’ letters had convinced him that “many wished to be able to return to the subject through the medium of print.” He dedicated the book “To Those who did not ‘SWITCH OFF’”. Invited in the early 1940s to take part in the BBC’s Brains Trust programme, he enjoyed tangling with C.E.M.Joad. Waterhouse’s books include Modern Theories of Religion, Everyman and Christianity, The Psychology of the Christian Life, The Philosophy of the Religious Experience, The Dawn of Religion - and An ABC of Psychology, written for Sunday-school teachers when Sunday schools still played an important role in children’s education. He also gave sessions of 24 lectures entitled The Psychology of Religion to extension courses in the London University extra-mural studies department, where he encouraged discussion around topics like “Personality and Character” or “The Occult and the Faith”. His most complete statement, The Philosophical Approach to Religion, published in 1933 with new editions in 1938 and 1960, assumed a readership which, although “unversed in philosophy”, could move step-by-step with him through subject matter like, to take the chapter entitled “The Idea of The Universe”, Theistic Conceptions – Dualism – Philosophical Dualism - Monism – Monism and Religion – Pluralism – Materialism – Realism and Idealism. In everyday life Dr Waterhouse was the antithesis of isms. His love of steam traction went right back to his attempt, aged 16, to become an apprentice engineer at the Great Western Railway’s Swindon works. It seems that, much against his mother’s wishes, he sat the exam and would have been accepted but for being deemed too young. The ministry followed. However, he frequently made it to the footplate on preaching excursions around Britain, writing a regular column for the ASLEF Journal. He was a vocal opponent of the diesel engine and of Dr Beeching’s cuts to the 1950s railway network. Childhood in rural Leicestershire bred a knowledge of country matters. Among his duties as a governor of Queenswood School in Hertfordshire was financial oversight of the school’s pig farm. He enjoyed good relations with the farmer and his wife, Mr & Mrs Morgan, Welsh-speaking chapel goers. One Sunday morning after preaching at Queenswood, accompanied by a grandson, he stopped off in his dog collar to chat with Mrs Morgan. “And I’ll take a dozen new-laid eggs home with me, please”. “Oh no, Reverend, not on a Sunday”. Eric Waterhouse preached his final sermon in Hayfield, Derbyshire, fulfilling an annual commitment to take the Sunday School Anniversary service there. His ancestors came from New Mills and Hayfield. Aged 84 and with a miserable cold, he had travelled by train from Epsom via Penrhos School, Colwyn Bay, where he attended a governors’ meeting on the Friday. He died at Epsom few weeks later, on April 11 1964. Dr Waterhouse married a daughter of William D.WaltersWalters family. Their son, John W.Waterhouse, was Principal of the National Children’s Home.

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Robert Curwen was born in 1850 in the Lancashire town of Fleetwood where his father ,Robert, was a timber merchant. In 1865 he was working in the Liverpool office of Christopher Ellison, a well connected architect with a strong Wesleyan clientele. He stayed with Ellison until around 1870 when he moved to London and worked in the offices of Sir Gilbert Scott, an eminent and well respected architect with many church projects to his credit, but very few of which were for the Wesleyans (or any other Non- Conformist congregations). Scott was a great exponent and strong believer in the Gothic Revival style of architecture, with its steep roofs and pointed door and window openings. Curwen would have been influenced into this style and Scott sent him on an Architectural Study Tour of the Continent. He was elected an Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1876 , supported by John Oldrid Scott, son of Sir Gilbert. Curwen's subsequent church designs (all for the Wesleyans as far as we can trace) followed closely his Gothic Revival instincts. Around 1876, and at the time of his marriage he left Scott and set up his own practice, initially with an office in Liverpool and subsequently moving to London where he started his married life.

Thomas May was a Bristol timber merchant (at some time May and Hassall) and also very active in the Victoria Wesleyan Methodist church at Clifton. In the early 1860s the minister there was Punshon, William Morley, LL.D (whose family also were involved in the timber trade in the North East of England) and the two families became lifelong friends. Thomas May had married Ann Constance Bowyer (nee Hill) following the death of her first husband Francis T. Bowyer, both of whom were Methodists. Ann had a daughter by her first marriage, also Ann and it was this Ann who married Robert Curwen in 1876. The ceremony at Clifton Victoria was conducted by Morley Punshon. Curwen profited from these links both in the greater Bristol area with commissions for churches in Redland, Keynsham, Lower Weston (Bath), Radstock and Portishead (the May influence no doubt), but also in the wider context around Liverpool and North Wales. Punshon was a well known speaker around the country and was the initiator of fund raising schemes for planting new churches. The best known was his Watering Places Fund which provided help for new buildings particularly in seaside locations and Curwen again profited from these initiatives with commissions in some of those places. Punshon subsequently became President of the Wesleyan Conference after serving for a spell in Canada. The Punshon link also provided Curwen with the commission to design the Punshon Memorial Church in Bournemouth, destroyed by enemy bombing in 1943. Overall his work took him from Sunderland (St John’s Ashbrooke), said by some to be one of the most important Nonconformist churches in the country, to Liverpool and North Wales; to Bristol where in addition to his church work he designed the Bristol Childrens Hospital (1882). He spent time in the South Somerset and East Devon area with a number of rural church designs, which have been described as “Arts and Crafts Gothic”, and a trip across to the Island of Portland and the Isle of Wight. Curwen hardly rates a mention in the annals of the RIBA except for the dates of his practising, and his involvement with buildings other than specifically churches, is limited to just a couple which have been identified; The Methodist Sailors Home at Eastney, Portsmouth (now demolished) and the former Smith-Dorrien Methodist Soldiers’ Home at Aldershot (in Neo-Tudor style).(1908) Of the buildings which have been identified as from his practice, at least six have been accorded the Listed status of Architectural and Historic interest. He had a long association with Leys School, The, Cambridge a Wesleyan establishment, beginning in 1877 when his first commission was won in competition for the design of the Great Hall. Over the next few years he designed other school buildings and after the death of the first Headmaster, Dr William Moulton (see Moulton family) in 1898, Curwen designed the Moulton Memorial Chapel which was dedicated in 1906. It is now a Grade 2 Listed Building.

His most prolific period seems, from the records which have been traced, to have been from 1876 for the next fifteen years or so, when ill health forced a break and he spent time in the Caribbean recuperating, before returning to the drawing board. He retired in 1909.

He lived all his married life in various parts of London and died there in 1915 at the age of 65 years. With his wife Ann they had six children, 3 boys and 3 girls. The eldest, Robert Basil, became an Anglican clergyman and did not marry, John died at the early age of 16 and Francis was killed in action in France just a few months before Robert’s death in 1915. Of his daughters, Marjorie married Dr George Lawson, a physician from Sydney NSW; Constance married Oscar Griffiths; and Irene remained single.

Other churches designed by Curwen included Bristol, Cotham WM (1877); Chard WM (1896); Colwyn Bay WM (St John's) (1882-87); Preston, St Mary's Street WM (church only) (1884-85).

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Hymn-books have occupied an important place in British Methodism since the movement’s beginnings. Their significance is expressed institutionally through the Methodist Conference’s practice of authorising specific hymnals for use across the connexion. More personally, for much of Methodism’s history, many members have owned their own hymnal. Authorisation and personal ownership point to an understanding of the hymnal has having a dual purpose, which can be traced back to John Wesley: they serve as both a practical manual for participation in communal worship and as a resource for personal devotion. For both purposes, authorisation confirms that the hymnals and their contents express and represent Methodist doctrine and theology. Hymn-books occupied a prominent place among the wide-ranging publishing activity of John and Charles Wesley. Beginning with A Collection of Psalms and Hymns (the Charlestown Hymn-Book, 1737), John vigorously pursued the task of compiling and editing anthologies of hymns, including translating hymns from German and other languages and contributing as an author in his own right. Subsequent volumes bearing the same title as the Charlestown collection appeared in 1738, 1741 and 1743, while a parallel series entitled Hymns and Sacred Poems (1739, 1740, 1742) was the first to contain hymns written by Charles. Charles’ poetic output burgeoned from 1738 onwards, and he was customarily the most highly represented author in the various compilations issued throughout the eighteenth century. Many collections consisting solely of Charles’ work were also published, often on specific theological or liturgical themes, such as Hymns on God’s Everlasting Love (1741), Hymns on the Nativity of our Lord (1745), and Hymns on the Lord’s Supper (1745). Several later collections under John’s editorship, including Hymns and Spiritual Songs intended for the use of Real Christians of all Denominations (1753) and Hymns for those to whom Christ is all in all (1761) preceded the hymnal that exerted the strongest and longest influence on Methodism, A Collection of Hymns for the Use of the People Called Methodists (1780), which contained more than 500 hymns. Two strands are identifiable among the various compilations: one addressing liturgical needs and the other more focused on matters of personal devotion and discipleship (see Leaver, 2010). While most of the volumes published by the Wesley brothers contained only texts, several tune collections were also issued during the eighteenth century. While the first, A Collection of Tunes, Set to Music, As They are commonly Sung at the Foundery (1742) Foundery Collection, was hampered by poor musical editing, it set important precedents in its borrowing of tunes from Germanic tunes from Moravian sources and in its adaptation of a secular melody by Handel. John Frederick Lampe’s Lampe, John FrederickHymns on the Great Festivals and Other Occasions (1746) ''Hymns on the Great Festivals and Other Occasions''was the first publication to contain tunes specially composed for Charles Wesley’s words. Thomas Butts’ Harmonia Sacra (1754) provided a much more extensive body of repertoire and served as the basis for John Wesley’s Select Hymns with Tunes Annext (1761; rev. 1765 as Sacred Melody)Select Hymns: with Tunes Annext. The 1742 and 1761 collections contained melodies only, but the latter was revised and extended as Sacred Harmony (1780/1, rev. 1790)Sacred Harmony, which included bass lines and occasional second parts. Most branches of Methodism continued to use the 1780 Collection for much of the nineteenth century, often supplementing it with seasonal and liturgical hymns and, as the century went on, more recent hymns from Anglican sources. The Wesleyan Methodists published extensive new editions in 1831 and 1876, the Methodist New Connexion and Bible Christians both published supplemental volumes in 1825, as did the Wesleyan Methodist Association (1830) and the Wesleyan Reformers (1853). Later in the century, these groups all produced new hymnals, but the thematic construction of the 1780 Collection remained influential. Primitive Methodism pursued its own path more quickly, with volumes compiled by Hugh Bourne (1809, 1829) Bourne, Hughand John Flesher (1854) Flesher, Johncontaining much repertoire suited to the denomination’s revivalist practices and methods. The Primitive Methodist Hymnal (1887), however, showed ecumenical influences similar to those observed in other Methodist books in the second half of the century. Early in the century, congregations often relied on locally compiled collections of tunes to use in conjunction with the various denominational books, but printing a specified tune for each individual text became standard practice in the later volumes. The Methodist Hymn Book (1904) was a joint endeavour between WM, MNC, the Wesleyan Reform Union and the Methodist Church of Australasia. Heavily dominated by the hymns of Charles Wesley, it also contained Anglican chants and many new tunes from eminent Anglican musicians, under the musical editorship of Frederick Bridge, Organist of Westminster Abbey. The high status afforded to hymnals in Methodism was emphasised by the publication of The Methodist Hymn Book (1933), just one year after the union of most Methodist groups to form The Methodist Church. Its committee, chaired by F. Luke WisemanWiseman, Dr Frederick Luke, was strongly influenced by the contents of the 1904 book. They sought to emphasise unity by reprinting John Wesley’s famous preface to the 1780 Collection, reaffirming the place and value of hymnody in Methodist worship and devotional practice. The 1933 book enjoyed an unusually long life as Methodism’s authorised hymnal. It was supplemented in 1969 by Hymns & Songs, which contained new hymns in traditional metrical forms by writers such as Fred Pratt GreenGreen, Frederick Pratt, MBE, Fred Kaan and Albert Bayly, folk hymns by the likes of Sydney Carter and Patrick Appleford, responsorial psalms by Joseph Gelinau and new tunes for older texts by composers associated with the Twentieth-Century Church Light Music Group. Several of these innovations were preserved in the next authorised hymnal, Hymns & Psalms (1983). It was intended to be an ecumenical hymnal, but the Methodist Conference’s resolution that it had contain 200 hymns by Charles Wesley (a requirement that was ultimately not met) impeded this aim. The growth in popularity of new repertoire by songwriters such as Graham Kendrick in the 1980s emphasised the traditional character of Hymns & Psalms and limited its appeal among congregations keen to have music led by a worship band rather than an organ. The 1990s saw further diversity, as contemporary songs from writers in Australia, the USA and elsewhere became well-known alongside those of their British counterparts, and the work of the Iona Community’s John Bell and Graham Maule both in writing original hymns and in compiling repertoire from the global church gained a stronger ecumenical foothold. Many churches supplemented or replaced Hymns & Psalms with non-denominational collections such as the Songs of Fellowship and Mission Praise series, or, assisted by technological developments, produced their own supplementary collections. Early in the new millennium, the Methodist Publishing House proposed a supplement to Hymns & Psalms, but with the agreement of the Methodist Conference in 2007, this became a complete new authorised hymnal, published as Singing the Faith (2011). Attempting to represent British Methodism’s increasingly broad musical repertoire it is stylistically considerably more varied than any previous authorised hymnal. Hymnals for children and young people were published by many of the Methodist denominations in the nineteenth century. This genre continued in the twentieth century with The School Hymn-Book (1950), Partners in Praise (1979), Story Song (1993) and Big Blue Planet (1995). The first Welsh WM hymn-book, Diferion y Cyssegr was published by John Hughes, (Brecon, 1802). Much altered and enlarged editions appeared in 1804, 1807, 1809 and 1812. Like all subsequent hymnals, these depended heavily on the Calvinist William Williams, Pantycelyn. The connexion itself published books in 1817, 1845 and 1900, and in 1927 joined with Welsh Calvinistic Methodism (the Presbyterian Church in Wales) to publish Llyfr Emynau a Thonau y Methodistiaid Calfinaidd and Wesleiadd (1927) and a supplementary volume in 1985. Methodists, Presbyterians and several other denominations came together to publish the ecumenical Welsh-language hymnal Caneuon Ffydd in 2001.

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In the words of the Preface to the Methodist Hymn Book (1933), 'Methodism was born in song,' fuelled by Charles Wesley's unparalleled output of hymns. The rise of Methodism followed closely on the transition at the turn of the seventeenth century from metrical psalms to hymns, of which Isaac Watts was the chief catalyst, Charles Wesley the chief heir and the Methodist people the first beneficiaries. John Wesley had learned from his Moravian companions on the way to Georgia the value of hymn-singing as a corporate expression of faith. He translated hymns from the German and published the first of many collections, the Charlestown Hymn-book, while still in America. Charles Wesley's outburst of poetic fervour began at the time of his conversion and was sustained over half a century. Hymns were an essential ingredient of the preaching service, which was intended to supplement, not replace, the worship of the parish church. In the open air they were used to attract a congregation (a technique also used by PM preachers in the next century). There is much testimony to the effectiveness of hymn-singing in both arousing and giving expression to faith as people responded to the preaching of the 'Methodist gospel'. At the same time they were experiencing what John Wesley saw as the essentially social nature of religion and, however unconsciously, were learning what he called 'all the important truths of our most holy religion, whether speculative or practical' - a safeguard, still necessary, against empty emotionalism. In an age when literacy was limited, the practice of 'lining out' prevailed, the words being given out, usually two lines at a time, before being sung. This rather tedious practice died hard: as late as the WM Conference of 1844 there were complaints that whole verses were being given out at a time. Conference expressed its disapproval of this innovation and made further attempts in 1860 and 1877 to maintain the earlier custom, which nevertheless succumbed to the rising tide of popular education and survives only in the custom (rare in Anglican circles) of announcing a hymn by reading out at least the opening line. The first two tune-books issued under John Wesley’s authority, A Collection of Tunes, Set to Music, As They are commonly Sung at the Foundery (1742) Foundery Collectionand Select Hymns with Tunes Annext (1761; known as Sacred Melody from 1765) Select Hymns: with Tunes Annext printed melody lines only. This seems to reflect Wesley’s preference, reinforced in the ‘Directions for Singing’ he included with the 1765 edition of Sacred Melody and in accounts in his journal of his interventions to stop complex part-singing in some of the societies he visited. Another collection of tunes associated with early Methodism, however, Thomas Butts’ Harmonia Sacra (1754) contained harmonised melodies, while John Frederick Lampe’s Lampe, John Frederick twenty-four tunes in Hymns on the Great Festivals and Other Occasions (1746) ''Hymns on the Great Festivals and Other Occasions''were written for solo voice with keyboard accompaniment. These various sources point to an important aspect of hymn-singing in Methodism: while it has been almost omnipresent since the early days of the movement, Methodist musical practice has been characterised by diversity rather than uniformity. Wesley acknowledged the desire for part singing and instrumental accompaniment in his final collection of tunes, Sacred Harmony (1780), as reflected in the volume’s full title: Sacred Harmony, or a choice Collection of Psalms and Hymns, Set to Music in two and three Parts for the Voice, Harpsichord & Organ.Sacred Harmony As Methodist worship increasingly came to take place in dedicated buildings, the use of keyboard instruments to accompany congregational singing grew. Records survive of three organs in Methodist chapels during John Wesley’s lifetime, but well into the nineteenth century their use continued to be contentious. The installation of an organ in the Brunswick chapel in Leeds in 1827Leeds organ case ultimately led to the formation of a breakaway group known as the Protestant Methodists Protestant Methodists, though their dispute with the Wesleyan Connexion extended to more general matters of governance. Many chapels installed either an organ or a harmonium during the nineteenth century; the latter offered a more physically compact and affordable instrument as mass production flourished in the latter part of the century. Choirs formed in many Methodist chapels and were not confined to Wesleyan Methodism. Though their role was ostensibly to lead the congregational singing, some also sang more elaborate choral repertoire, and, in some cases, made use of Anglican chant for the reciting of psalms and canticles. Such changes in musical practice also influenced Methodist architecture in this period, as buildings were designed or adapted to accommodate pipe organs and seating for choirs. Further changes in Methodist musical practice began in the final decades of the twentieth century and have continued into the twenty-first century. While many Methodist churches retained the organ (electronic organs replacing many older pipe organs and harmoniums) as the default instrument for accompanying congregational singing in this period, a growing number of congregations began to make use of an instrumental group or worship band to lead the congregation in modern hymns and songs that bore the stylistic influence of folk and popular music idioms. While many different instruments feature in such ensembles, they are built around instruments the perform discrete roles: a drum-kit provides rhythmic backing, harmony is provided by guitars and keyboards, and a small group of singers and solo instruments (e.g. flute, trumpet) provide the melody. Technological developments have gone hand-in-hand with the growth in popularity of this repertoire, and guitars, singers and other instruments are customarily amplified. Technology has also influenced Methodist hymn-singing in other ways. The mass printing of hymn books and the general rise in literacy ultimately led to the demise of the practice of lining-out described above, and many Methodists owned their own copy of the hymnal. Since the late twentieth century, some churches have invested in technology to project lyrics onto a screen or wall. The desire to install such equipment in older buildings has sometimes presented significant logistical challenges, while the incorporation of such elements into the design of new buildings is further evidence of the relationship between hymn-singing and church architecture. Technology has also been employed to provide musical solutions for congregations whose diminishing membership has resulted in the absence of a regular musician; the authorised hymnal Singing the Faith (2011) is supported by a set of compact discs containing accompaniments for each hymn.

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Sacred Harmony or a choice Collection of Psalms and Hymns, Set to Music in two and three Parts for the Voice, Harpsichord & Organ, 1780/81, 1790, the final collection of hymn tunes published under John Wesley’s authority, expanded slightly upon the selection made in Select Hymns (1761, 1765) Select Hymns: with Tunes Annext. The more significant change came in the musical format; all tunes were printed with bass lines and a few also had a second melody part. The full title of the volume indicates that keyboard accompaniment was expected. As well as hymn tunes, the volume contains a small number of extended ‘set-piece’ anthems.

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This volume contains a selection of 132 hymn texts drawn from a range of earlier Methodist publications and 102 cross-referenced tunes. This was the second collection of hymn tunes published under John Wesley’s approval. The selection of tunes expands on the categories found in the earlier Foundery Collection Foundery Collection (1742), including older metrical psalm tunes, Germanic melodies, and adaptations of secular songs and instrumental music. As with the earlier volume, the tunes are printed in melody-only format. The second edition (1765) placed the tunes under the title Sacred Melody and also included John Wesley’s ‘Directions for Singing’, a set of seven brief statements advising his followers on musical conduct in worship.

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More accurately, A Collection of Tunes, Set to Music, As they are commonly Sung at the Foundery [The Foundery Collection]. The first collection of hymn tunes published under John Wesley’s authority, this small volume contains forty-three tunes cross-referenced to hymns in Hymns and Sacred Poems (1739, 1740, 1742). It contains a selection of older metrical psalm tunes, several Germanic tunes borrowed from Moravian sources, and an adaptation of a march from George Frideric Handel’s Handel, George Fridericopera Riccardo Primo (1727). The tunes are printed in melody-only format, with a single stanza of text interlined. Though hampered by poor editing and presentation, as well as its limited size, its contents established musical precedents that were influential in eighteenth-century Methodism.

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An English composer, organist, conductor and singer, he served in several London parishes, conducted at Covent Garden, and was a member of several musical societies. He was acquainted with Charles Wesley and composed a set of original tunes for twelve of his texts, published as Twelve Hymns, The Words by Revd Mr Charles Wesley (London: Printed for the Author by C and S Thompson in St Paul’s Church Yard [ca.1765]). Like earlier examples by John Frederick Lampe Lampe, John Frederickand George Frideric Handel Handel, George Frideric, they appear to have been written for performance by a solo singer accompanied by a keyboard instrument.

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Born in Halle, Saxony, and later resident in Hamburg and Italy before settling in London. He was a renowned composer of opera, oratorio, choral and instrumental music. Though not directly acquainted with the Wesley brothers nor an adherent of Methodism, he composed three original tunes for hymns by Charles Wesley. The likely mutual connection was Priscilla Rich (wife of theatre impresario John Rich), while John Frederick Lampe’s Lampe, John FrederickHymns on the Great Festivals ''Hymns on the Great Festivals and Other Occasions'' appear to have been the source of the texts. Like Lampe’s settings, they were likely intended for domestic performance by a solo singer accompanied by a keyboard instrument. They remained unknown until the manuscript was rediscovered by Samuel Wesley in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, in 1826.

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The book contains 23 hymns by Charles Wesley and one by his brother Samuel, with musical settings by J.F. Lampe Lampe, John Frederick, the first original tunes written for Methodist hymns. As the title indicates, most of the texts are focused upon the major seasons of the Christian year, but the collection also includes three hymns on death, characteristic of the early Methodists' claim to 'die well'. The twenty-four texts are in nineteen different metres. Lampe’s tunes are characterised by florid, heavily ornamented melodies with wide ranges, showing clear evidence of his background as an operatic composer and performer. They are scored for solo voice with continuo accompaniment. Most of the tunes were subsequently reprinted in Sacred Melody (1761) and Sacred Harmony (1780), demonstrating John Wesley’s approval, but they quickly fell out of use in the nineteenth century.

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Irish Methodist coal merchant, Unionist gun-runner and philanthropist born into a Methodist family in Belfast. His grandfather, Samuel Kelly I (d.1877), in 1852 established a coal merchant’s business in the city and his son, John Kelly (d1904), inherited it on his father’s death. John Kelly died at Harrogate on 15 September 1904, where he had gone to his daughter’s and possibly for health reasons. A member at Mountpottinger WM, Belfast, he was a benefactor to both the Belfast and North Belfast Central Missions, and in 1894 was a founder committee member of the Belfast Methodist Benevolent Fund. In 1911 Samuel Kelly II, and his mother held equally 50,000 £1 shares in Samuel Kelly Ltd and by the 1930s had a fleet of forty-six colliers. Before the First World War he began having difficulties dealing with trade union demands but took a cooperative approach, although he opposed syndicalism and socialism. A national coal strike in 1912 left Ulster especially vulnerable but his colliers restored Belfast’s coal supplies. Then in 1929 to increase access to coal supplies he acquired a mine at Workington. Then he turned his attention to an Irish coalfield, opening a colliery at Annagher, near Coalisland in 1924 but flooding resulted in its closure in 1928. At various times he held a total of fifteen directorships, including the Ulster Bank and Workington Electric Power Co. Nevertheless, some of his business dealings were questionable. Politically a Unionist, he briefly served on Bangor Urban Council but soon became a member of the Standing Committee of the Ulster Unionist Council. When it was determined to arm the Ulster Voluntary Force he became a member of its secret Arms Committee and in April 1912 used some of his ships for gun-running. He was a considerable benefactor to Irish Methodism playing a similar role to Joseph Rank Rank family in Britain; this included Bangor Methodism. He further helped relieve the distress experienced by Irish Methodist supernumeraries. He was knighted in 1923 for being ‘a public benefactor… and general supporter to charitable objects’. Following his death on 2 February 1937, his estate was valued at £732,000 despite making severe financial losses on the Coalisland scheme estimated at £300,000. Offices held included that of Deputy Lieutenant of County Tyrone, Vice-President of the Belfast Chamber of Commerce and and being an active member of the Belfast Harbour Commissioners. A memorial plaque was erected in Mountpottinger Meth. His wife continued his charitable work, including supporting the Royal National Lifeboat Institution.

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Labour politician and Primitive MethodistPrimitive Methodism local preacher Local Preachers who died when preaching. Born at Coanwood, Northumberland, on 21 January 1876, the son of a coalminer, he also became a coalminer. He was elected a checkweighman and became Northumberland Miner‘s Agent. He was elected to Northumberland County Council and then in 1922 stood unsuccessfully for Hexham but was returned for Wansbeck in 1929 but lost the seat in 1931. He died on 1 December 1935.

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Born in Lancaster, aged about fourteen was apprenticed to his father, a cabinet maker, and became a local preacher. He visited London when he was about twenty to increase his business knowledge, preaching at Moorfields. Subsequently he moved to Colne before labouring in the Middleham Wesleyan Methodist circuit (1822/3) during the illness of the Rev. John W. Barrit. As he was prevented from candidating for the ministry because of his own health problems, he established his business in Bacup but soon after, in 1827, moved to Leeds Leeds, where he became established as an upholsterer. He joined the Oxford Place society and had two of his Oxford Place sermons published as tracts. He was Treasurer for the Leeds District Disabled Ministers and Widows Fund, was a trustee and served on the committee of Woodhouse Grove School. His brother entered the Wesleyan ministry. A Liberal in politics, he was a councillor for the Mill Hill Ward, 1840 to 1843, and then the West Ward, 1844 to 1847.In 18147 he was elevated to the aldermanic bench so continuing until his death in 1860; he was appointed mayor in 1854. He died from dysentery on Wednesday, 12 September 1860 and was interred in Leeds General Cemetery, Woodhouse. He left £900 to religious and benevolent institutions.

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Primitive MethodistPrimitive Methodism local preacher Local Preachersand Labour politician, the son of a blacksmith, born 11 August 1855 at Sunderland. He began work at nine and three years later was apprenticed as a blacksmith at Dipton Colliery. Becoming active in the Durham Colliery Mechanics Association, eventually becoming its Secretary, served on the Co Durham Mining Federation, was President of the Durham Aged Mineworkers Home Association. In 1906 he was elected to represent Chester-le Street so continuing until 1919 when he resigned on health grounds. He was succeeded by Jack *Lawson, a Wesleyan. He died on 20 June 1934 at Dipton.

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Primitive MethodistPrimitive Methodism local preacher Local Preachersand politician, the son of a carpet weaver, born at Row Green, Somerset on 18 December 1843; the family soon, moved to Yorkshire. Aged eight he began working in a brickyard, at nine in a factory, and at ten at Methley Colliery as a pit boy; educationally, essentially he was self-taught.

In 1872 he was elected as a checkweightman at the Good Hope Pit, Normanton, and then from 1876 to 1881 was the Assistant Secretary of the West Yorkshire Miners Association. In 1881 it merged with the south Yorkshire Miners Association to form the Yorkshire Miners Association, holding the post as agent for twenty years. Originally adopted as the Liberal candidate for East Leeds, the death of Ben Pickard Pickard, Benjamin, MP, a Methley Wesleyan local preacher and Lib-Lab member for Normanton, saw Parrott elected in the 1904 by-election. However, he died at Barnsley on 9 September 1905.

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The Morse family were Primitive Methodists Primitive Methodism of a number of generations. Charles Morse (d.1877, aet 68) was one of the first Primitive Methodist converts in Wiltshire, a local preacher Local Preachers, he knew what it was to be prosecuted for preaching in the open air. A memorial to him is in Stratton St. Margaret’s Methodist.

Levi Lapper Morse (1853-1913) was born at Stratton St. Margaret’s, near Swindon, on 24 May 1853 and educated at Swindon High School. He became a prominent shopkeeper in the growing railway town of Swindon, owning a department store in Regent Street, a chain of stores in the South West, a large mail order business but was known as a draper and grocer. He was a Wiltshire County Council alderman, Mayor of Swindon, 1901, and the only local Nonconformist Justice of the Peace when appointed in 1893. He was the Liberal Member of Parliament for Wiltshire (South Division/Wilton). 1906 to 1910, but did not stand again on health grounds’ He died at Swindon on 10 September 1913.

His son, William Ewart Gladstone Morse (1878-1952), also born at Stratton on 23 January 1878, was likewise a life-long Primitive Methodist, Vice-President of the Conference, 1925, and represented the Connexion on the British Council of Churches. He served on the Methodist Union Committee, Bookroom Committee, and General Chapel & Chapel Loan Fund committee.

Educated at Swindon High School, he was a leading Swindon business man and in 1926 took over control of the family business. The firm had both a pension and profit sharing schemes he was also President of Swindon Chamber of Commerce and a Freemason for forty years. His South African born wife owned Croft Down Kennels, which bred championship dogs.

Politically a Liberal, he served on Swindon Council for twenty years, was twice its mayor and Chairman of the Finance Committee; he was also on Wiltshire County Council for thirty years. He stood unsuccessfully for Bridgwater in 1922 but won the seat in 1923, losing it in the following year. He stood again in 1929 for Weston-super-Mare without success.

He died on 8 December 1952

Stanley Carlton Morse joined the Royal Air Force Reserves and was killed on a bombing raid in 1941.

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Began work in a brickyard and then went on to become a Primitive MethodistPrimitive Methodism minister. Active in the Labour Party, he resigned from the ministry in 1919, but remained local preacher, to focus on working for the Labour Party. It was subsequently rumoured that he had been thrown out both for being a consciences objector in the First World War and for his political activity. He stood without success in a number of constituencies: Bournemouth (1918); Penrhyn & Falmouth (1924 and 1929); St Ives by-election (1928). Appointed General Secretary of the East Dorset Labour Party, in 1922 he became the South West Propagandist and later Regional Organiser for the Eastern Counties.

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Born at Toxteth Park, Liverpool Liverpool, and educated at evening classes and Liverpool University. In 1912 he was married at Princes Park Primitive Methodist, Liverpool and under the ministry of the Rev. H.J. Taylor (1859-1451) seems to have become a member in 1921. During the First World War he served in the Royal Navy Reserves and then became the Secretary of the Liverpool Boiler Makers Union. He stood both in 1922 and 1923 unsuccessfully as the Labour candidate for Liverpool (West Toxeth) gained the seat in a by-election in 1924 but lost it in 1931. He regained the seat in another by-election in 1935 and held it until 1950. Boundary changes in 1950 resulted in the seat becoming part of the Toxeth constituency and he lost the seat in 1950.

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Ship-owner and politician born at Grimsby, the son of William Doughty, a tenant dairy farmer, born at Great Grimsby 13 July 1854. Educated at Grimsby Wesleyan Higher School, initially a builder ad carpenter. In his early days he was a Primitive Methodist Primitive Methodismlocal preacher and considered entering its ministry but financial constraints prevented it. By 1906 he had not been associated with the Connexion ‘for some years’ since. He may have become an Anglican but as he was known as the 'Wesleyan Demosthenes of tariff reform', this is another possibility. He was also a Freemason and was knighted in 1904. He became a merchant, ship-owner, a partner in the town-based firm of Hagerup, Doughty & Co Ltd and a director of the Humber Commercial Docks. In 1905 Hagerup & Doughty, The Ice Factory Ltd., and Monarch Steam Trawling Co merged to form the Consolidated Steam Fishing Co Ltd, with ninety-four trawlers. As a Liberal he was a Grimsby alderman and mayor in 1892 and 1893. He was elected to parliament for Great Grimsby in 1895 but resigned his seat in 1898 on joining the Liberal Unionists, over Home Rule. However, it has been claimed his real motive was his business interests. He stood successfully in the ensuing by-election and retained the seat until January 1910 when defeated by the Liberal candidate, but regained the seat in December 1910. He joined the Conservatives when they merged with the Unionists in 1912. He died at Waltham Old Hall, Lincs, on 27 April 1914.

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Primitive MethodistPrimitive Methodism local preacherLocal Preachers, from being twenty, coal miner, and Lib-Lab politician, the son of a shoemaker born at Haslan, Derbyshire, on 5 September 1852. His Sunday school teacher was Dr. George Booth Booth, Dr. George. From the age of ten worked at a coal pit and joined the South Yorkshire Miners Association in 1869 but was dismissed from the pit for his trade union activities, subsequently finding employment at Sheepbridge and then Morton.

When in 1880 the Derbyshire Miners Association separated from that of South Yorkshire, he was a founder member. He was its first Treasurer but resigned in 1882 as meetings clashed with the employer’s cricket matches. However, in 1891 he became the union’s Assistant Secretary and in 1892 was elected to the Miners Federation of Great Britain, followed by being the President of the Chesterfield Trades Council in 1894.

Appointed Financial and Correspondent Secretary of the union in 1906 raised his profile and enabled him to be the successful candidate in Derbyshire (North East) by-election in 1907. He had stood previously and unsuccessfully as an independent Lib-Lab candidate in 1885. As a Liberal he strongly opposed socialism and syndicalism. He was the Vice President of the Liberal’s Labour Electoral Association to secure workers’ votes. Reluctantly, under union instructions he joined the Labour Party in 1910. However, he became increasingly unhappy over the party’s treatment of miners representatives in March 1914 re-joining the Liberals but died soon afterwards at Chesterfield on 28 April 1914. He was succeeded in Parliament by another Primitive Methodist local preacher, Barnet *Kenyon Kenyon, Barnet.

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Socialist, sociologist, academic and writer, especially interested in working-class culture, was born 24 September 1918 at LeedsLeeds, the son of a boilermaker. Orphaned at eight, he went to live with his grandmother, in Hunslet, an industrial and working-class community south of the city centre. Here he came under Primitive Methodist Primitive Methodism influence. A grammar school education was followed by the University of Leeds and war service. He held a number of university posts at Hull, Leicester, Birmingham before finally becoming Warden of Goldsmith’s University of London. He served on a number of public bodies including the Arts Council and the Royal Shakespeare Company.

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Trade unionist and Labour politician from Wymondham, where he was born on 15 January 1889 to Primitive MethodistPrimitive Methodism, teetotal parents, his father being a blacksmith. Initially working as a compositor for the Norwich Mercury he progressed from being a reporter to its sub-editor and chair of the the Norwich Branch of the National Union of Journalists. His employment at the Mercury enabled him to give active support to the agricultural works without the risk of victimisation. In 1926 he was elected to the executive committee of the National Union of Agricultural and Allied Workers, being its President from 1928 to 1964. He served as a parish, district and Norfolk County councillor, becoming an alderman of the latter, as well as being George Edwards’ Edwards, Sir George, MP, OBE agent. He failed to win North Norfolk in 1931 but was returned for South Norfolk in 1945 retaining the seat until his death on 2 August 1964. He was succeeded by Bert Hazell Hazell, Bert(ie), MBE, CBE. Also a teetotaler,until 1922 he was a Primitive Methodist member and local preacher but in that year resigned as a result of the opposition to his political views in the Wymondham chapel, although he continue to worship with them.

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‘Yhe Welsh Primitive Methodist Marxist’ born 31 July 1904. In 1945 he was elected to represent Leek for Labour, retaining the seat until 1970, following which he became a life peer. His left-wing views kept him out of government under Atlee but held a number of posts as a Parliamentary Private Secretary under Wilson, including that from 1967 to 1979 to the Prime Minister. He died on 28 October 1985.

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Born at Intake, Sheffield on 13 October 1869 and educated at Gleadless Church School. He was born into a Primitive Methodist family and was a local preacher for fifty-seven years; his mother has been baptised by Bourne, HughHugh Bourne. At twelve he began work as a farm labourer, then from thirteen to eighteen worked at Birley Colliery, near Sheffield, as an engineman. Employment then took him to Cadeby Colliery near Rotherham where he was a winding engineman for twenty-four years. He was the General Secretary of the National Winding and General Engineers Society for twenty-five years. In 1918 he was elected for Sheffield (Attercliffe) as a Coalition Liberal with Lloyd George’s endorsement but lost the seat to Labour in 1922. He stood again, unsuccessfully, as a Liberal for Ilkeston in 1923 and then as National Liberal for Mansfield in 1935, losing on both occasion to Labour. Abandoning any further attempts to enter Parliament, then became member of Mexborough Urban District Council. He died on 29 November 1949.

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Explosives expert, member of Fore Street UM, Redruth, and Local Preacherslocal preacher, born on 26 January 1887. He was educated at Camborne Science and Art School, who received professional explosives training at Camborne School of Mines. From 1907 to 1914 he became the chief metallurgist and head of the research department for Bickford, Smith & Co., Ltd., Camborne but on the outbreak of war, was mobilized with the Royal Garrison Artillery (Territorial). He returned to Bickford’s after the war, which subsequently became part of ICI, but continued his military career and in 1939 was promoted to brigadier. With the outbreak of war he commanded the whole of the anti-aircraft coast defences in a large part of Southern England, retaining this positon until until 1942, when he retired from the Army and returned to his civilian work. He was then appointed commander of the Mid-Cornwall Sector of the Home Guard. In November, 1942, he became a Deputy-Lieutenant for Cornwall, and in the following July an Aide-do-Camp to the King. He died on 5 February 1945. His three sons followed military careers, one of whom marrying the daughter of the Earl of Westmeath.

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Business owner and politician, born into wealthy family, his grandfather been an officer decorated in the Napoleonic Wars and his father, James, for a time lived in Australia. Aged twenty-four he entered the family building business. A life-long teetotaller, he was a member of Fore Street UMFC, Redruth. A Liberal in politics, he was chairman both of Redruth Urban District Council and Cornwall County Council. In 1918 he stood unsuccessfully for the Penryn and Falmouth Division. He was knighted in 1916 for his part in the recruitment campaign.

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Born the son of a coal miner at Choppington, he also went down the pit and was a Primitive Methodist local preacher from an early age. Active in the Northumberland Miners Association. He was elected the full-time Financial Secretary, served on the Northumberland Coal Trade Joint Committee, and was President of the Northumberland Aged Mine Workers’ Homes. In 1918 he succeeded Burt, Thomas, MPThomas Burt as Member for Morpeth and continued to represent it for Labour until his death on 23 May 1923.

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Shoe manufacturer and politician, born at Hitchin, was the son of a wine cellar man, who began life as an errand boy and ended up as a business owner. An active member at Flottergate Primitive Methodist, Grimsby, he was a Local Preacherslocal preacher. In the Holland with Boston by-election in March 1929 he was elected as a Liberal and returned in the general election later in the year. In 1931 he joined the National Government under Ramsay Macdonald and subsequently stood as a National Liberal, and as such was returned in 1931 and 1935., being Junior Lord of the Treasury, 1931 to 1935. Knighted in 1936, he was killed in a car crash on 10 May 1937.

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Son of a coal miner born 4 March 1867, he became a Labour politician and a Primitive Methodist adherent. A full-time official of the Durham Miners Association, he served on the South Shields Town Council and Board of Guardians. He failed to win Spennymoor in 1918 but gained the seat in 1922 and so continued until 1942, when he resigned from the Commons on health grounds. He died on 21 April 1949.

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From ordinary beginnings in Bury, Greater ManchesterBury, Lancashire, he entered the Wesleyan Methodist Association ministry at the age of 20, serving mainly in circuits in the north of England. His assiduous reading meant that his preaching was more scholarly than populist. As part of the United Methodist Free Churches from 1857, he became prominent in its committees, serving on the Connexional Committee for 35 years, and in the annual Assembly, twice being elected President (1867, 1881). Although generally conservative he was also adaptable to new situations and challenges. He came to know Everett, JamesJames Everett and Griffith, WilliamWilliam Griffith, and wrote their biographies (1875, 1885). He was nominated Principal of Victoria Park College, ManchesterVictoria Park College in 1894, but was never able to take up the post.

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