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Teetotal advocate and Wesleyan Methodist, born on the Isle of Man to John and Jony Teare, where he received a meagre education in Ramsey and became a cobbler and Wesleyan Methodist. At nineteen he went to Liverpool with the intent of emigrating but on visiting his brother in Preston, Lancs, he decided to remain. Here, by 1833 he was actively involved in the teetotal movement and won his spurs at the Preston Race Week mission in 1833. On returning to the Isle of Man, from 1835 to 1836, he encouraged people to sign the pledge; four Manx brewers went out of business and in one parish alone thirty-two public houses closed. On Monday, 4 April 1836 he set out to introduce the country to teetotalism. His greatest triumphs were in the west in Cornwall, being invited by his fellow Wesleyan, Mudge, Dr Henry. Teare’s appearance in St. Ives, Cornwallin 1837 led to a temperance society being formed and ultimately to the Teetotal Wesleyan Methodists secession. On his death it was found that he was comfortably well-off; he left a legacy to support a temperance essay prize.

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Trade unionist born at Shebbear 10 March 1840 and educated at Shebbear College, North Devon. By the mid-1860s he was prominent in the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners,becoming its General Secretary in 1871. During this period he was elected to the Trade Union Congress' Parliamentary Committee, serving as its chairman from 1876 to 1879. On being appointed a Factory Inspector in 1881, he resigned from his trade union posts. Retiring in 1905, he died on 4 February 1923.

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Primitive Methodist trade unionist and politician, born 1 April 1842. He was a founder member of the Derbyshire Miners' Union and a leading official, serving as Secretary from 1881 to 1913. In 1911 he was the President of the Trades Union Congress. Elected to Parliament as a Liberal for Chesterfield in 1906, he was returned at both general elections in 1910 for Labour. He died on 31 July 1913.

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Ethel Bossons was the first pioneer lecturer and demonstrator of the modern revolutionary method of teaching Methodist Sunday School teachers how to let young children learn by being allowed to be children Ethel Bossons was born 25 February 1902 at Talke o’ th’ Hill, near Newcastle under Lyme, Staffordshire. Her parents were Edward (1878-1939) a coal mine hewer, and Miriam nee Barker (1878 - c. 1955). Ethel was the eldest of seven children who with their parents and paternal grandparents attended Thomas Street, United Methodist Free Church, and Sunday School, Talke. When Ethel was 13 the family moved to Tunstall, Stoke-on-Trent where they joined Jubilee Primitive Methodist Chapel and Sunday School, which was the place where the first Primitive Methodist Sunday school was founded in 1811 by Clowes, William. Ethel’s move to the Primitive Methodists prompted her grandfather Edwin Barker (1857- c.1920) to write to her telling her about her great grandmother Miriam Barker (1819-1875) who was a lifelong Primitive Methodist. In the letter, which is on ‘My Primitive Methodist Ancestor’ site, Edwin tells Ethel how when he was a boy he moved from the Primitive Methodist chapel to the Free Methodists. Edwin ends the letter ‘So I think you are quite alright with the primitives.’ Ethel became a teacher in the Tunstall Jubilee Primitive Methodist primary and junior departments and later leader of the primary Sunday School. In 1918 Ethel became a chapel member and chorister at the Tunstall Jubilee Primitive Methodist Chapel. It was a pivotal moment for Ethel Bossons when Archibald, George Hamilton, the celebrated international pioneer, lecturer, and author of authoritative books on graded Sunday school teaching methods, gave a lecture in Tunstall. Following Archibald’s lecture where he convincingly explained his method of teaching Sunday School teachers how to use the psychological based method of teaching. Archibald’s approach to teaching Sunday School children are, in his own words printed in Carey Bonner’s Child Songs ‘We must help children be children, not adults. The selection of words as well as music from the child’s point of view is an application of a fundamental Kindergarten principle…and if the same principle be carried into all branched of our Sunday and other schools it will free the children from the trammels of adultism which have bound, and are still binding, them fast. This book is an application of that principle.’ The officials of Jubilee Primitive Methodist Church and Sunday School were so impressed with the Sunday School methods that Archibald advocated they met and agreed, with the generous financial support of the Primitive Methodist Connexional, General Sunday School Committee, to send Ethel to Westhill College, Selly Oak, Birmingham to be trained in the Archibald philosophy and method. George Hamilton Archibald was the Principal of Westhill College which specialised in training Sunday School teachers in modern Sunday School methods based on Archibald’s pioneering educational theories based on psychological principles. Ethel Bossons was awarded the Westhill Certificate in December 1923 with the endorsement ‘Specialisation in Beginners, Primary and Junior Departmental leadership’. Ethel returned to Tunstall Jubilee and became the leader of the Upper Junior Department. Soon she was appointed the first Primitive Methodist Connexional Sunday School lecturer and demonstrator. At a meeting of the Connexional Sunday School Council meeting at Crewe on 8 April 1925 Ethel Bossons was ordained to the lay ministry. The ordination charge was given to her by Rev George Bennett (1855-1931) the former Primitive Methodist Conference President and Connexional Sunday School Secretary. The charge to the Church was given by Rev Samuel Palmer (1872-1952) the Connexional Sunday School Secretary. Miss Bossons became a regular lecturer and demonstrator of the new methods of teaching Sunday School children throughout the Connexion. In the 'Weekly Journal of the Primitive Methodist Church' in the ''Primitive Methodist Leader'' of 3 June 1926 Ethel Bossons is listed along with Professor Atkinson Lee, M.A., Rev. Charles. P. Groves, B.A., B.D., Rev Samuel Palmer, Rev. Thomas R. Auty, B.D., The Connexional Sunday Schools Secretary, Mr. and Mrs. W. V. Chivers, and Mrs. Lee, B.A., as being a lecturer at the Summer School for Sunday School Workers held at the Orphanage, Alresford, near Winchester, from 31 July to 14 August 1926. Ethel Bossons was a regular lecture at Easter and Summer residential Sunday School teachers’ conferences throughout her long devoted service in Methodism. At Methodist Union she became a staff member of the Connexional Sunday School Department and in 1943 when the Sunday School Department and the Wesley Guild were brought together to form the Methodist Youth Department Ethel became a member of the field staff until her retirement in the 1960s. After her thirty-seven years of continuous service she retired to Craig y Don, Llandudno where her wealth of experience was shared with the Sunday School staff at St David’s Methodist Church, Llandudno and other places in North Wales. In 1991 Ethel Bossons returned to her native Tunstall, Staffordshire, where she died on 26 May 1992.

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The Archibald family was one of the first Scottish Presbyterians to migrate to Ireland following the Battle of the Boyne (1690). Around 60 years later Scottish-Irish Presbyterians were encouraged to emigrate by the British to the renamed New Scotland, Nova Scotia in North East America, with promises with ‘Grants of Lands’. Samuel Burke Archibald along with his three brothers and three sisters and their families sailed from Londonderry to Halifax, Nova Scotia Three generations later George Hamilton Archibald was born to Thomas Ellis Archibald (1824-1893) and Sarah nee Hamilton (1822-1905). George’s father made a good living running a logging mill. Young George had a comfortable home with freedom on weekdays and in the summer to hunt, fish, horse-ride and track in the forest and on the wide open plains. Sundays were a misery. They had to go to the Kirk where George had to sit upright on straight backed uncomfortable pews, for the two hour long service and listen to what seemed endless sermons which he did not understand. When they returned home everybody had to stay indoors in case they were tempted to get into mischief. A double tragedy changed George’s life. Firstly the logging mill caught fire and the family moved to Boston, Massachusetts. George now 13 started work as a cash boy in a local store earning $2 a week. In 1873 uncle John Archibald started a business in St John’s, Newfoundland and took George’s elder brother William into the business as a partner. William lost his life and the essential machinery for the business when the George Washington sank in a storm. George took his brother’s place and became a partner in the business. George attended St Andrew’s Presbyterian Kirk where he became a Sunday school teacher and later Superintendent. In 1880 he married Grace Murray (1854-1929). They had a daughter Ethel (1881-1955), who became her father’s assistant and Head of Sunday school Work at Westhill College. When John Archibald relocated the business to Montreal in 1888 George, Clara and Ethel moved. George soon became Superintendent of the largest English speaking Sunday school in Protestant area of Montreal.

Five years later George sold his share in the business to his uncle. With his fortune and future secure he became a man of independent means. George looking for a new career became a student at the School for Christian Workers in Springfield, Massachusetts. After a year he left the School turning down the opportunity to be trained as an ordained minister.

On returning to Montreal George was appointed the Provincial Secretary to the Protestant Sunday School Union of Quebec. In this capacity along with his wife, also a delegate, he attended the Seventh International and the World‘s 2nd Sunday School Convention in St Louis, Missouri U.S.A. in 1893. He was elected a member of the International Executive Committee 1893-96. At the Convention England and Wales was reported as having the largest number of Sunday Schools in Europe. There were 37,201 Sunday Schools, with 585,457 teachers and 5,976,537 scholars. Attending the Conventions put George in touch with delegates from many countries, including England, Wales and Scotland. It also introduced him to the new thinking about how to teach children and young people.

A new approach to Sunday school teaching The general approach to education at the time was ‘subject-centred’. John Dewey (1859-1952) the American forward thinking educationalist was encouraging ‘student-centred’ learning. Dewey’s philosophical approach was pragmatic. He advocated solving problems through experience. Armstrong seeing the value of Dewey’s learning through activity instead of by rote and wearisome reputation encourage the Canadian Sunday School teachers to put the ‘child first’ before the subject. Armstrong’s enthusiasm for Dewey’s method of teaching drew him to the notice of international leaders attending the 1896 Boston and the 1899 Atlanta Conventions. The British delegation saw the need to review Sunday school teaching. 1905 was a pivotal year. Firstly Archibald was invited to give a 5 week lecture tour in major British cities. The tour was strenuous which frequently saw George giving two and sometimes three lectures a day. Secondly Peake, Dr Arthur Samuel A. S. Peake (1865-1929) wrote a series of articles in ''Primitive Methodist Leader'', beginning on 7 September entitled 'The Reform of the Sunday School'. Based on the comments of students entering Hartley College, Manchester about Sunday schools Peake wrote of the unsatisfactory quality of the ‘International Uniformed Lesson System’ although he acknowledged that it had improved. Thirdly George received an invitation from Frederick Taylor, of the Friends’(Quakers) Firstday (Sunday) School Association, to be the guest speaker at their Easter Conference at Northfield Manor House, the home of George Cadbury, the chocolate manufacturer, benefactor, and Sunday school teacher. George Cadbury listened carefully to Archibald’s lectures about children and their intelligence, temperament, and their worlds of make believe. He outlined the place of fantasy, myths and legends in the child’s imagination. He also outlined the role of teachers as teachers. Based on his research into children’s intelligence Archibald reminded his listeners that ‘A child of twelve is nearer to a person of twenty in mental outlook than a child of six is to one of twelve. George Cadbury was impressed but said does your theory work. Yes replied Armstrong. With this assurance Cadbury, invited him to open a demonstration Sunday school in Ruskin Hall in Bournville Garden village to demonstrate his methods. John William Hoyland (1855-1927) the Director of the Friends’ College for training missionary candidates offered him a number of young men and women to assist him. This was providential because these young missionaries used on the mission fields Archibald’s techniques to teach children. In the demonstration Sunday school Armstrong had comfortable child sized chairs, a blackboard, sand trays, plasticine, pencils, paper and building blocks. He graded the classes according to age. There were no wearisome tasks, no bribes offered to learn unrelated memory passages. The Bible was presented imaginatively and graded to suite the different age groups. so that the children were fascinated and thrilled by its stories and uplifted by Christ. This venture soon led to the opening of Westhill College, Birmingham with George Hamilton Archibald as Principal. Archibald's impact on Methodism came through his lecture tours and through Westhill College students such as Miss Ethel Bossons the Primitive Methodist/Methodist Archibald method demonstrator. The Methodist Westhill College lecturer Hubery, Douglas Stanley (1916-1988) by his publications such as The Experiential Approach to Christian Education (1960) further developed the method.

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Wednesbury West Midlands Wednesbury is a market town in the West Midlands but historically and in the Wesleys’ time it was in the land locked county of Staffordshire. It is a short distance from the source of the River Tame. Archaeological evidence indicates that there was an Iron Age hill fort and an early medieval hilltop enclosure. In 1004 the area was known as Wodensbyri. In the Doomsday Book (1086) Wadnesberie is described as a thriving rural community. Wednesbury gradually changed from a family strip farming community with grazing on common land to a developing industrial area. Coal pits were dug around 1310. When suitable clay was discovered between the coal seams pottery making became a significant industry. William Paget, the M.P. for Lichfield and Secretary of State for Henry VIII was born 1506 in Wednesbury and was recorded as the son of a nail maker. Hand wrought nails continued to be made until nails were machine made in the early 19th century. The list of trades around the time of the Wesleys’ visits included bakers, blacksmiths, enamel ware coal boxes, patch boxes, snuff boxes makers, silversmiths making shoe buckles, tea tongues, and other items. Other trades recorded are butchers, carpenters, cobblers, colliers, edge tool makers, farmers, glove makers, gun lock makers iron fitters, locksmiths, maltsters, masons, millers, nailers, potters, textile dealers, weavers and wheelwright. In the mid-18th century there were 4 forges in the town. Whilst many of the trades were ‘hand to mouth’ family run businesses in an outbuilding behind their houses others were major industries. The opening of the Wednesbury canal in 1769 allowed coal and manufactured goods to be easily, safely, and cheaply transported to Birmingham. In the 18th century the population was around 3,700 and by 1801 it had risen to 4000. In the 17th and 18th century cruel blood sports were the pastimes for rich and poor alike. There was bull baiting on the High Bullen. Wednesbury was celebrated for cock fighting. The poem The Wednesbury Cocking gives details of the teams, and the viciousness of the sport. The mother society of Staffordshire Methodism Methodist was introduced to Wednesbury by Charles Wesley at the invitation of Frances Ward, the St Bartholomew’s Church Warden, and the underground manager of John Wood’s colliery. The Rev Edward Egginton (1698-1743), was the vicar of St Bartholomew’s Wednesbury from 1719 till he died aged 45 in 1743. Edward Egginton who had heard of the success of Wesley’s ‘Field Preaching’ and his work amongst the miners at Kingswood, was warmly-disposed to the Wesley brothers visiting his parish. John Wesleys says in Modern Christianity Exemplified at Wednesbury that John Eaton, of Wednesbury in Staffordshire, had heard the Rev. Mr Charles Wesley, in the latter End of the Year 1742, preach Salvation by Faith, in the Wednesbury Coalpit Field. Charles Wesley also preached at Holloway Bank, opposite Hawkins Street on the Great Shrewsbury Road when several people were converted. John Wesley urged by his brother Charles made his first visit to Wednesbury on Saturday 8 January 1743 and preached at the market cross which had been renamed in 1742 the Town Hall. The following day he preached at Holloway Bank three times. The Society now had 29 members and 3 days later the number had risen to 100. On Sunday afternoon he went to hear Rev Edward Egginton, preach ‘a plain, useful sermon’. Following the service most of the congregation went with Wesley to the Hollow to hear him preach. In John Wesley’s letter to John Smith in 1746 he says that he visited the vicarage, and that Mr Egginton told him 'that the oftener I came the welcomer I should be; for I had done much good there already, and he doubted not but I should do much more.' Wesley left on the Wednesday having had a trouble free visit Charles in his Journal 20 May 1743 records 'I got once more to our dear colliers of Wednesbury.' The numbers in the Society Charles records are 300. On the Saturday Charles consecrated with a hymn a piece of ground which a Dissenter had given for a preaching-house, he then walked with others to Walsall. Here Charles and his companions met with hostility. Charles Wesley was stoned and beaten to the ground. Charles returned to Wednesbury via a peaceful Birmingham meeting. (For fuller details see Wednesbury riots, 1743-1744). Nelson, John and Whitefield, George also preached in Wednesbury in 1743

Meeting House In 1760 a Wesleyan Methodist Meeting House was built close to one of the notorious cock fighting pits on Workhouse Lane later renamed Meeting Street. It was a square building with a gallery and seated around 350 people. On the 4 March 1760 John Wesley preached ‘in the New House at Wednesbury’. The Meeting House was replaced on the same site by Springhead Wesleyan Chapel in 1812. In front of the chapel was place the ‘horse block’ which was originally the external flight of stairs to the upper room of the malthouse at High Bullen on which John Wesley had preached at midday on 20 October 1743. The 1812 Spring Head Chapel seated 620 people and was opened on 13 May 1813 by Benson, Joseph. The chapel was lit by 5 chandeliers, the central one held 35 candles. These were replaced by gas light in 1828. On 9 January 1843 the Wednesbury Methodist Centenary Celebrations were held in the house in Holloway where John Wesley had held his first Society Meeting. With the increasing population of the town and the growing congregation a new and larger building was required. The second Spring Head Chapel was dedicated 12 November 1867 when Arthur, William was the preacher. The third Spring Head Chape; was built in 1932. This was demolished in 1965. The present Wednesbury Central Methodist Church was built of the former Wesleyan School site.

Other Wednesbury Methodist Chapels The Methodist New Connexion opened a chapel in Holyhead Road, but it only survived for a few years until the building was sold. In 1812 the Primitive Methodist held open air service probably from the Darlaston Society. In 1824 the Primitive Methodists opened a chapel in Camp Street, Wednesbury. Later they built chapels in Vicarage Lane and Lea Brook. The Wesleyan Reform Connexion sometime after 1849 build a chapel in Ridding Lane. This Society became a Free Methodist Church. The chapel was unused for around 20 years when the roof collapsed in 2017. In the Wesley Centre, Wednesbury are Methodist archives gathered and donated by Dr Dingley. Displays include Wesleyana, Bibles and a stone thrown at Wesley during the Wednesbury Riots of 1743-4; also the horse block from which Wesley preached at High Bullen. (See Dingley family).

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Russell Pope was born in Barry in 1909. He started working life as a watchmaker, and, after a conversion experience in Cardiff, he offered for the Wesleyan Methodist Ministry. After training at Cliff College and Handsworth College, Birmingham he served in home missions appointments at Central Halls in Manchester & Salford, Liverpool, Bristol and Manchester Albert Hall, with a distinctive and compelling evangelistic style of preaching. He was deeply committed to his support of the Labour movement. Moved from city ministry to become Chair of the Plymouth and Exeter District (1959), and President of the Methodist Conference in 1974, he served both rural and city churches faithfully. After serving as an active Supernumerary minister for 3 years in Ilfracombe, he continued to answer invitations to preach from around the Connexion until his death on 5th July, 1985.

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Elsie Moult, née Read, was born in Bulwell, Nottingham, on 17 December 1919, into a family rooted in Primitive Methodism. She became a Local Preachers in the Nottingham (North) Circuit, and there met a fellow preacher, Ernest Moult (1916-95). Ernest was accepted as a candidate for the ministry in 1939, and they married in 1945, while Ernest was serving in the North of Scotland Mission. Elsie spent the rest of her life in Scotland, representing the Methodist Church in negotiations for union with the Church of Scotland, but her involvement in Methodist missions gave her global interests. She served on the Central Committee of the Methodist Missionary Society, helped to transform the Methodist Laymen’s Missionary Movement into Methodists for World Mission, and held office as MWM President and Connexional President of Women's Work. She was Vice-President of the Conference in 1980 and was made MBE in 1986 for her work as a Vice-President of the British Council of Churches. She died in Dundee on 21 October 1993.

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In the early years of Welsh Wesleyan Methodism the town of Rhyl did not exist. The first Wesleyan to preach in the area in Welsh was John Maurice in the house of Thomas Hughes in 1802. Others who preached at the house were Edward Jones (Bathafarn) and John Hughes. Shortly afterwards a Welsh Wesleyan Society was formed. When Richard Hughes with his bride joined the Rhyl Welsh Wesleyan Society in 1820 the work increased. In 1814 a Society was meeting in a house in Rhyl. Around 1831 Rhyl was developing into a holiday resort and on 28 August 1831 the Society moved into their new chapel. When in 1853 Rhyl had become a well-established ‘watering-place’ a site was bought in Sussex Street and a large chapel was built. This was succeeded in 1872 by a larger chapel built in Brighton Road. Rhyl was in the Holywell, then Llanasa Circuit, then in the Denbigh Circuit. In 1866 Rhyl was the head of the new Rhyl (Welsh) circuit with Rev William Hugh Evans as the Superintendent. As Rhyl developed as a seaside holiday resort the English Wesleyan mission started around 1861 when the Llandudno & Rhyl (English) Circuit was established. When Rev Edward Crump visited Rhyl in September 1862, he found a small English Class under the leadership of Mr Bell meeting in the Welsh Wesleyan Chapel. He was told that the tenure would end at the end of the month. The Society then moved to Mr Astle’s upper room reached by an outside stairway from the beach road. In the Spring of 1863 the growing congregation moved to the Rhyl Town Hall which was unpopular with many residents who tried but failed to get the services stopped. The Society prospered and they opened their own chapel designed by C. O. Ellison of Liverpool in Bath Street on 28th June 1868 in Bath. The chapel was in part financed by Punshon, William Morley, LL.D's Watering Places Fund. In 1878 Mrs (Dr) Morley Punshon laid a memorial stone for the new Punshon Sunday School and Manse in August 1878. This listed building closed in December 2006 when several of the members transferred to Rhuddlan English Methodist Church meeting in the Welsh Wesleyan Chapel. Rhuddlan Welsh Wesleyan Chapel was built in Gwindy Street in 1832 and a larger chapel was built in 1910 on the same site following a fire and named it y Tabernacl. As the English-speaking population grew an English Methodist Society was formed on 1st May 1932 who continued to hold services in English in the Rhuddlan Welsh Wesleyan chapel until 1956 when they moved the Conservative Room in Parliament Street and later to the Welsh Baptist chapel before returning to y Tabernacl in 1967. In late 1990’s the Welsh Wesleyan Society closed, and the building was transferred from the Welsh Wesleyan Circuit to the English Methodist Circuit and continues to be the Methodist Church serving the Rhuddlan and Rhyl area.

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Doreen Emily Woodford was an advocate of the rights of deaf people in Britain and the developing world. She was born on the 18 February 1926 in Wandsworth, London to a deaf father and a hearing mother. Her grandfather was also deaf. She was born hearing but became deaf. Being an only child, in a deaf household her first language was deaf signing followed by speech. Doreen’s family were good caring Plymouth Brethren people who struggled on a merger income. Doreen from a young age was a determined, independent minded driven homo sapiens – wise person. From her Christian upbringing she held firmly all her life both to the teachings of the faith and its practical social concern for people. Obstacles were seen not as an unsurmountable wall but a challenge. Whilst a child she raised chickens to provide pocket money her parents couldn’t give her. In 1941 Doreen left school aged 15 and trained in childcare at Barnardo’s. During WWII many qualified teachers were conscripted into the armed forces and Doreen was persuaded to help teach deaf children. A pivotal moment came when Doreen moved to Southport and met deaf people at the Southport Deaf Club. Her plans for her future changed in 1944 when she went to teach at the Crown Street School for the Deaf, Liverpool which had been evacuated to Southport. Seeing the quality and dedication of Doreen the head teacher, Frank Denmark, in 1945 insisted that she took training and opened the way for her to go to Manchester University to study under Professor Ewing. In 1950 she became a Certificated Teacher of the Deaf. Doreen’s next appointment at the Royal School for Deaf Children in Margate was key. It was at this school that she opened the first class for teaching children with multiple disabilities. At the school there were Tanzania and India deaf children who were sent by wealthy parents. Doreen became the guardian of two Tanzanian boys. When in the late 1950s she visited their family home in city of Mtwara she became aware that children in developing countries had little opportunity to attend school and she resolved to do something about it. In 1969 she was appointed a teacher at the Alice Elliott School Liverpool. In 1975 she was became a teacher at the Summerfield School in Malvern and ended her working career as the adviser for sensory deprived children at a primary school in Haringey. Doreen who had signed even before she could speak had a constant battle as a teacher to get signing used as a teaching language. In the late 19th century signing was used as a teaching language but the Milan 1880 ‘Second International congress on the Education of the Deaf’ passed 2 condemning resolutions. The resolutions were probably influenced by the outspoken condemnation by Alexander Graham Bell who argued for a complete ban of sign language. The Conference passed two resolutions. 1. ‘The Convention, considering the incontestable superiority of articulation over signs in restoring the deaf-mute to society and giving him a fuller knowledge of language, declares that the oral method should be preferred to that of signs in the education and instruction of deaf-mutes. The second resolution underpinned the first by declaring that The Convention, considering that the simultaneous use of articulation and signs has the disadvantage of injuring articulation and lip-reading and the precision of ideas, declares that the pure oral method should be preferred. This attitude in the educational profession persisted until the 1960’s. When Doreen was awarded the ‘Mary Grace Wilkins Travelling Scholarship’ she forthrightly chose to research the place of sign language and the quality of its presentation and use in the classroom. Doreen’s extra-curricular activities included becoming the leader of Girl Guide troops for the deaf. Not only did she introduce the girls to the Guiding principles and activities she gave then an appetite for adventure and to be self-reliant. She became an active member of the Trefoil Guild and wrote Seventy-Five Remarkable Years A Record of Deaf People and the Girl Guide Movement 1910-1985. Doreen was a founding member of the British Deaf History Society and wrote several books. In 1982 Doreen was awarded the Diploma of Chaplains for the Deaf. She also took the Royal Life Saving Society training course which she passed and was awarded an Instructor’s Certificate. She was an enthusiastic member and secretary of the Shropshire Wesley Historical Society. Throughout her career Doreen campaigned for the recognition of the profession of Teachers of the Deaf, and published material for training purposes. She promoted the work and recognition of Teachers of the Deaf by having high level meetings with professionals and decision makers in Government. In 1981 Doreen became the chair of BATOD [British Association of Teachers of the Deaf] which she helped to get established. She regularly wrote articles in their magazine and was in demand as a lecturer. When Doreen had to retire in 1986 aged 60 her enthusiasm to teach, support, pastor and inspire deaf children opened new opportunities. She studied for and received in 1987 a Postgraduate Diploma in Language in the Multi-Racial Community In 1985 she helped start the ‘Initiatives for Deaf Education in Developing Countries’ This organisation with members from the UK and 20 African and Asian countries held workshops and conferences supporting the deaf. Doreen established the charitable society ‘Allah Kariem [God provides] which became better known as ‘Friends of the Holy Land Institute for the Deaf’ Its aim was to aid work with deaf and deafblind in Jordan and the Middle East. As one of four founder members Doreen was honoured to have the Woodford Foundation named after her. The Foundation has projects in parts of Tanzania, Uganda and Malawi. The Much Wenlock Methodist Church was packed to overflowing at her funeral both with her friends and many representatives of the Deaf Teaching profession and the charities she supported.

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Edward James Alexander Tull was a mixed heritage dentist in Glasgow. He was born in 1886 at 57 Walton Road, Folkestone, Kent. His paternal grandparents were William Criss and Anna who were enslaved Moravians on the Clifton Estate Barbados. They spent their spare time teaching their fellow slaves to read and write. When William and Anna were liberated William changed his name to Tull. William and Anna gave birth to Daniel (1856-1897) who trained as a carpenter and joiner. In 1876 William worked his way to England as a ship’s carpenter. Shortly after his arrival in England in 1877 Daniel wrote a journal giving an insight into his early life in Barbados and St Lucia. When he settled in Folkestone as a carpenter he joined the Grace Hill Wesleyan Methodist Chapel where he met his future wife Alice Elizabeth Palmer (c.1853-1895), a farm worker’s daughter. During their tragically short marriage they had six children, Bertha 1881 who died in infancy, William 1882, Cecelia 1884 [Cissie], Edward 1886, Walter 1888, Elsie 1891 (later Seward BEM). A year after Alice had died he married her cousin Clara Alice Susannah Palmer. They had one child Miriam (later Kingsland) who was born 11 September 1897. Three months later Daniel died of a heart attack. Miriam found it impossible to cope with looking after five step children and Miriam so it was arranged that the two youngest boys Edward and Walter to be placed in the National Children's Home (NCH) Bonner Road, Bethnal Green, London. Edward enjoyed singing and soon joined the Bethnal Green NCH choir. On several occasions the choir toured to several parts of the UK giving concerts to raise money for the home. As a devout Methodist, Edward’s love of singing would stay with him throughout his life, culminating in him leading the choir at his local church many years later. His rich baritone voice was regularly heard at concerts in Scottish concert halls and other venues. On one occasion the choir was performing in Glasgow in 1900. In the audience was Mr James Kay Warnock (1856-1914) with his wife Jennie (1863-) Jennie’s brother James Aitken was a dentist in Glasgow. Jennie and her brother James Aitken had been orphaned and were raised in a poorhouse in Kirkintilloch. James K. Warnock was a highly skilled block printer but decided to become an apprentice dentist to his brother in law James Aitken. Once trained he eventually opening his own dental practice. The minister of the Claremont Street Wesleyan Church, Glasgow described Warnock’s practice as "whose clientele is mainly among the poorer people" The Warnocks adopted Edward, changed his name to Tull-Warnock and promised to educate him and "treat him as a son". Although this meant him being separated from his brother Walter they regularly wrote to each other . In 1903 the Warnocks sent 52 shillings to Walter for the train fare to come to stay with them for a holiday. Edwards adoptive parents were eager to give him a good education so they sent him to the Allan Glen Boys’ School, Glasgow. He quickly showed an academic capacity and like his brother he showed an aptitude for football. In 1906 Edward entered the Incorporated Glasgow Dental Hospital where he became an outstanding student, and won prizes for his operative work. On leaving the hospital he went to the Glasgow Royal Infirmary to learn anaesthesia. He graduated in 1910 with LDS [Licentiate in Dental Surgery] With his graduate qualifications now granted Edward applied for a post as an assistant dentist in Birmingham. With wise awareness he sent with his application a photograph of himself. When Edward arrival at the surgery his new employer looking at the man of colour before him is reported to have said: ‘My God, you’re coloured! You’ll destroy my practice in 24 hours!’ He was not employed. Disappointed but nor undeterred Edward returned to Glasgow and joined his father’s practice. When in 1914 James K. Warnock died Edward took over the practice. Later he worked in Aberdeen where he met Elizabeth Elliot Hutchison (-1963) who he married on 30th September 1918 Edward Tull-Warnock is recognised as one of Britain’s first Black professional dentists. He qualified in 1912, and was entered onto the Dentist Register in 1913. Edward understood and promoted the importance of preventative dentistry. He was an advocate for a balanced diet. He became aware that the fad for confectionary was a dangerous factor in poor dental health. He encouraged regular dental hygiene and dental examinations. His strong support for the National Health Service came in part as he remembered, with horror, the tragic practice of some of the poorer Glaswegians who sent their young children to his surgery with 6d and a message from their parents to extract as many teeth as sixpence could pay for. Edward was a keep sportsman which included football and golf. He played football for the Ayr Parkhouse Football Club and Girvan Athletic Football Club. He was a member of the Turnberry Golf Club winning several championship trophies. Edward remained in contact with his siblings and his sister Cissie [Cecelia] came to live with him and Elizabeth. Edward and Elizabeth had one child, a daughter Jean who married Rev Duncan Finlayson (1917-2012) and had 4 children Pat, Duncan, Edward and Iona. There are at least seven members of Edward’s extended family who became dentists. Edward’s adopted cousin, Benjamina Aitken, was one of Scotland's earliest female Licentiates in Dental Surgery who graduated in 1929. At St Bartholomew’s and the London School of Medicine there is a prestigious Edward Tull-Warnock dental scholarship which is open to African/Caribbean dental or oral hygiene therapy students in the BDS or BSc Oral Health Programmes.

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John Buchanan was born in Glasgow on 14 July 1908 to John Buchanan (1877-1950) and Bertha Jane nee Hoare (1880-1966). He was frustrated by his severely disabled arms which made him become a rather wild young boy. He was born with 2 imperfectly formed fingers where his left hand should have been. His right arm ended with a stump at the elbow. Shortly after John was born his parents move to Fleet in Hampshire. With the birth of other children their mother found it increasingly difficult to give John junior the extra care and attention he needed. It was suggested that John should be placed in the care of the National Children's Home (NCH). Being so severely disabled this was not straightforward. He was examined by a Harley Street physician who did not give a very encouraging report. He concluded ‘Here is a lad who in all probability will never be able to earn his own living.’ The physician warned the NCH officials that John’s disabilities were so extensive that they may be greater than the home could deal with. However at the age of 9 John was admitted to the National Children’s Home Branch for Crippled Children at Chipping Norton. When John entered the Chipping Norton Home he was almost monosyllabic. Soon he settled into school routine and the reports showed him to be intelligent and likable. Against all expectations John learned to hold a pen and then a paintbrush in his stump and disformed 2 fingers which amazed his teachers.

When John showed, despite his great disabilities, that he had a flair for art the Chipping Norton Home arranged for him to be enrolled on the General Art Course of the Oxford School of Art. This meant that John had to get up very early and travel the 21 miles to Oxford and return to Chipping Norton around 7 30 in the evening. John soon showed that his special genius was in his exceptional sense of colour and his artistry in being able to produce superbly bordered texts which he sent to NCH Sister Lucy in London which she sold at first for 3 pence but as his artistic competence grew so did the price of the illustrations. After leaving the Chipping Norton Home at 16 he moved to London with the money he had raised by his art and set up his studio. When John was 17 Lord Montagu saw some of his work and was so impressed that he sent him a gift. This was soon followed by a commission from Lord Montagu for John to copy on stiff board extracts from the family deed going back to King John. In 1926 he attained recognition at the Royal Society of Arts when his work was displayed at the Imperial Institute South Kensington. He was awarded the Major Frank Wedgwood First Prize. He was invited by Queen Mary to paint her Christmas Cards. When Lady Lucy, the widow of Sir Henry William Lucy, J.P. was shown the copy of the Illuminated Ladies’ Association of the National Children’s Home book and heard how the NCH had nurtured John she gave them £1000 to start a scholarship fund to assist children in their care to go to university or to enter one of the major professions. When the NCH formed the ‘League of Light’ scheme they asked John to design a special collecting box. He designed what became the successful iconic lantern with the message of light in a dark world.. John’s illuminated texts were used during WW2 to raise money for the war effort. His work can be seen in many books and places including Liverpool Cathedral In January 1940 at Hendon, Middlesex, John Married Edith Jane Jones (1904-2004) a young child care worker he met whilst visiting the Alverstoke branch of the NCH. They adopted a baby girl. They lived at 10 Pasture Road, Wembley, Middlesex. John died on12 January 1953 and his funeral service was conducted by Waterhouse, John Walters, OBE the Principal of the National Children’s Home. In 1954 The John Buchanan Memorial Hall at the Chipping Norton Branch was opened by John’s widow, Edith Jane Buchanan. In 1955 the NCH opened the first NCH home in Scotland, Cathkin House, Rutherglen, Glasgow, in memory of John Buchanan and with an anonymous gift given in John’s memory

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Chemist whose contribution to the study of biochemistry and nutrition of children in the early twentieth century was of international importance. Evelyn M. Hickmans was born on 9 April 1882 to Mary Elizabeth Hickmans nee Parsons (1850-1922) and David Hickmans (1856-1928) in Coseley, a mining village, in the Staffordshire Black Country. Her father was an elementary school master who moved the family to Codsall, Staffordshire, and started a milk contracting business. Going into partnership with a member of the Trinity Wesleyan Church, Wolverhampton. the business grew and became known as Hickmans and Mould, Wolverhampton. Son Wilfred Hickmans joined the business as a milk steriliser and later became the Company secretary and director. The family became members and officers of the Penn Road, Wesleyan Chapel, Wolverhampton. On 21 May 1925 Evelyn M Hickmans laid one of the foundation stones of Beckminster Wesleyan Sunday School. Evelyn remained a member of the Methodist Church until she died and was a benefactor of the Trinity Methodist Church, Compton Road, Wolverhampton.

After receiving her early schooling probably from her father and the local schools in Coseley and Codsall, in her late teens Evelyn attended evening classes at the Wolverhampton and Staffordshire Science and Technical School in Garrick Street and in 1902 she was awarded the high accolade of ‘Chief Student’. As a result of the excellence of her matriculation subjects mathematics and chemistry she was awarded the Mander scholarship (£24 per annum) to attend Birmingham University. She was awarded a B Sc in science and chemistry in 1905 and a M Sc the following year. Even though she had her degrees and her work on the isomeric forms of methyl esters of mandelic acid published she could not find work. In 1908 she went to King’s College London to study household science which led her to investigate nutrition. The outcome of this study led to her being invited to help establish the new Department of Household Science at Toronto University. WW1 intervened and she could not take up her post as lecturer in applied chemistry and dietetics until 1920. Her time at the university was cut short by her mother’s illness and untimely death. Although she was invited back to the university she remained in England. Evelyn’s cousin and fellow Wesleyan Dr Leonard Parsons (later knighted for medical research) was the paediatrician at the Birmingham Children’s Hospital where he was researching child wasting disorders. He asked Evelyn to join him and to establish chemical tests on children. Her reputation grew and in 1925 was invited to give a lecture at the influential Annual Conference for the Teachers of Domestic Science in Bath. Her presentation was based on her research into the diets of undernourished infants. This research was rewarded by Birmingham University with a PhD. Her ground breaking work led to the founding on 15 December 1949 of the Midlands Association of Clinical Biochemists with Evelyn as the first chairman. Evelyn was a leading advocate of the national Association which was formed in 1953. In 1951 a 2 year old child called Sheila Jones was diagnosed with a rare and untreatable inherited condition Phenylketonuria (PKU) Her distressed and tenacious mother Mary would not accept that there was no treatment and put pressure of Evelyn and her team to find a remedy. Evelyn with a visiting German doctor, Dr Horst Bickel along with Dr John Gerrard showed that the disease was treatable. Sheila Jones was the first child to receive dietary treatment for PKU and lived until 1999. Evelyn’s work led to world-wide interest in the prevention of other forms of mental retardation and the world wide introduction of the screening of new-born children. Hickmans, Bickel and Gerrard were awarded the highly regarded international ‘John Scott Award’ from Philadelphia in 1962. Dr Hickmans was a Soroptimist. She was also a founder member of the Association of University Women - Wolverhampton Evelyn died on 16 January 1972 and Trinity Methodist Church, Wolverhampton was filled for her funeral.

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Politician and international socialist, born in Bristolon 15 May 1891, son of a lithographic printer. On leaving school he became a Civil Servant. A Methodist by upbringing, through the Liberal Christian League he came into contact with the Liberal Party, but his political education caused him to cease to be a Methodist member by 1912, and he ultimately became a humanist. Politically, he moved to the Independent Labour Party and was an absolutist conscientious objector in the First World War, suffering imprisonment from September 1916 to April 1919. As a result he could no longer work as a Civil Servant. His trade union activities saw his appointment as the Secretary of the National Union of Docks, Wharves and Shipping Staff, which in 1922 became a constituent part of the Transport and General Workers Union. In the same year he was elected to the London County Council as a Labour councillor for Peckham. He also became a governor of Ruskin College, Oxford. In the 1929 general election he stood unsuccessfully for Heywood and Radcliffe but was elected MP for Shipley in 1935 only to lose the seat in 1950. An acknowledged expert on colonial affairs, he served in the Colonial Office from 1945, first as parliamentary under-secretary and then as Secretary of State. He played a significant part in preparing British dependencies for political independence. In 1951 he failed to be elected for Romford in the general election, but was returned for Wakefield in a by-election in 1954, continuing in parliament until ill-health compelled his resignation ten years later. He died at Lambeth on 23 October 1964.

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