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Vice-President of the Conference 2006-7, born in Edmonton and educated at Westcliff High School for Boys and the University of Sussex (BA Hons 1968). He became a member in 1962 and local preacher in 1970, serving on the connexional Local Preachers' Committee in the 1980s. From 1968 to 2001 he held a series of senior posts in the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, rising to be Head of the Environment Group in 1996. From 2002 to 2010 he was a Public Member of Network Rail. He was married in 1969 to the Revd Dr Jean Walsingham, Rector of the Watercombe Benefice, Rural Officer for Dorset and Canon of Salisbury Cathedral. Active in ecumenical affairs as a member of the Southampton District Ecumenical Action Team (from 2009, convenor from 2010) and a governor of the Southern Theological Education Training Scheme (STETS) (from 2002 , trustee from 2011-15), he represented the Methodist Church on the General Synod of the Church of England (2001-7) and served on the formal conversations between the Methodist Church and the Church of England (1998-2001). He was a member of the Church of England's Rural Affairs Group (2002-12). He has been a frequent member of the Conference since 1989 and chaired the commission on the Conference (1993-7) which introduced numerous changes to its membership and practice; in 2020 he was elected to the Conference Business Committee, a committee whose creation was one of those changes.. He was a member of the Methodist Council 2004-8 and 2009-10, and of its Strategy and Resources Committee (2004-10). He served on the committee for the 1999 Methodist Worship Book</span> (1990-99) and on the Faith and Order Committee (1999-2005). He was chair of the Methodist Publishing House (1996-2004) and a Trustee of Westminster Central Hall (2004-10). He was Secretary of the Southampton District Policy Committee (2010-17) and Chair of ArtServe (2011-14). In 2010 he gained an MA in Theology for Mission and Ministry with STETS and the University of Surrey.

Publications: (contrib.) Policies into Practice (1984), The Church in the Woods 1886-1986: a Historical Sketch of Woodcote Methodist Church (1986), Shades of Grey (2006)

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John Howard (1791-1878) came of strong Methodist stock: his son Frederick recorded in the 1912 Methodist Who’s Who that he was ‘born at Bedford a month before John Wesley died’ and it was claimed that he was the oldest living Local Preacher (see Local Preachers) at the time of his death. After apprenticeship to an ironmonger at Olney, he returned to Bedford to establish his own business, first as an ironmonger and then, from 1835, as an iron-founder, specialising in the manufacture of agricultural machinery. A consistent Tory in politics, Howard took a leading part in the opposition to Lord John Russell’s parliamentary candidature for Bedford in 1830, citing Russell’s critical comments on Methodism in his Memoirs of the Affairs of Europe (1829). Russell’s defeat was ascribed, probably inaccurately, to Methodist influence, represented by the intervention of Howard, as circuit steward, and Maximilian Wilson, the Superintendent Minister. Howard’s own political career carried him to the mayoralty of Bedford (1858-62), the first WM to hold the office. Two of Howard’s sons joined him in the business, and in 1850 he retired from active management of the firm.

James Howard (1821-89), John Howard’s second son and senior partner in the firm of J. and F. Howard, excelled as an engineer, gradually improving the firm’s agricultural machinery: some seventy patents were registered in his name. Under his leadership the company built the Britannia Ironworks in Bedford in 1856-59 and in 1862 acquired the 600-acre Clapham Park estate for practical and experimental farming. Howard wrote extensively on agricultural topics, was a model employer, and active in civic improvements. He pioneered the volunteer movement in Bedford, forming a company of his own workers, later the 9th Bedfordshire Rifles. As Liberal MP for Bedford (1868-74) and Bedfordshire (1880-85) he gained a reputation as a champion of tenants’ rights and he was a member of the Council of the Royal Agricultural Society. He died in London on 25 January 1889.

Frederick Howard (1827-1915), John Howard’s fourth son, was James’s partner in the firm, specialising in its financial and commercial organisation. A Deputy Lieutenant for Bedfordshire and a magistrate, he received a knighthood in 1895 and died on 6 January 1915. Among his benefactions were the organ at St. Paul's Wesleyan Church, Bedford in 1869 and a Gospel Cars given to the WM Home Mission Committee.

John Howard’s third daughter, Helen Howard (1830-1921), married in 1855 Charles Farrar (1833-96), son of the Rev. Farrar, John. Three of their sons pursued careers in engineering, travelling to South Africa to work in J. and F. Howard’s operations there. George Herbert Farrar (1859-1915) founded the East Rand Proprietary Mines, played a leading role in the tense politics of the Transvaal in the 1890s and raised and commanded troops during the second Boer War. He received a knighthood (1902) and a baronetcy (1911) and was killed in a railway accident on active service in South West Africa during the First World War.

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WM minister and missionary. Born in Cockermouth, Cumberland, on 9 February 1819, of Anglican parents, he became a WM and Local Preacher (see Local Preachers). Offering for the ministry, he was sent in 1842 to Negapatam in the Madras District and worked in India for twenty-five years. Sanderson’s first wife, Martha (née Perress) died in Mysore in 1849, leaving two children. In 1855 Sanderson married Sarah Reinhardt (1822-84); their second daughter, Ellen Martha (1859-1948) married Tasker, Dr John Greenwood. Sanderson was a skilled linguist and compiled a Kanarese-English dictionary. In 1868, when it was decided to reserve Richmond College, London for the training of students intending to serve overseas, Sanderson was appointed House Governor, and he held this position until 1891. His regime was described as ‘Spartan’ and ‘strictly economical’. After retirement he continued to live in the locality, and he died on 10 February 1902.

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WM minister, born on 20 January 1853 at Skipton-in-Craven. After training at Richmond College, in 1876 he became Assistant Tutor, and from 1887 Classical Tutor, there. In 1881 he married Ellen Martha Sanderson (1859-1948), daughter of Sanderson, Daniel, House Governor at Richmond. In 1892 he moved to Handsworth College as Tutor in Biblical and Classical Studies, later becoming Principal (1910-1923). Four years at Cannstatt in Germany in the early 1880s laid the foundations of an interest in German theology. He delivered the Fernley Lecture in 1910 on 'Spiritual Religion', was President of the 1916 Conference and in 1918 was a delegate to the Conference of the MEC South in the USA. He died on 17 June 1936. His brother William Henry Tasker entered the ministry of the Church of England, and was father of the New Testament scholar R.V.G. (Randolph Vincent Greenwood) Tasker (1895-1976); their half-brother, W.L. Tasker (e.m. 1880; died1941), also entered the Wesleyan ministry.

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Born 25 March 1903. After an elementary education to the age of fourteen, he became a miner on the Durham Coalfield. He married Margaret Aspey in 1925. Active in the Labour Party, in 1945 he was elected MP for Durham, continuing until 1970. In 1962 he was appointed opposition Northern Area whip and then from 1964 to 1969 a government whip. A minister in Independent Methodism, he was Connexional President in 1971. He died on 7 September 1984.

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Following some years of ecumenical co-operation among the churches in Ireland, the Methodist Church, the Presbyterian Church and the Church of Ireland formed a Tripartite Consultation in 1968.

By 1988, it was proposed to move from unity consultation to theological working party. The Methodist Church and the Church of Ireland approved the proposal, but the Presbyterian Church decided to withdraw entirely from theological discussion.

In 1989, the General Synod of the Church of Ireland and the Conference of the Methodist Church in Ireland agreed to establish a Joint Theological Working Party (JTWP) with a remit which included instructions:

• To consider the implications of the work of the Tripartite Consultation in the new bilateral context • To relate the work of the proposed Anglican-Methodist International Commission to Anglican/Methodist relations in Ireland

The churches recognised a shared history, with new appreciation and understanding of the factors which had led to the parting of ways between the Church of England and ‘the people called Methodists’ in the eighteenth century.

By 1999, new terms of reference were ratified, and the governing bodies endorsed the work of the JTWP, encouraging it to ‘hasten forward’. Following a residential meeting, a draft Covenant emerged, and an initial draft was presented to the General Synod and the Conference of 2000. Following local consultation and revision, at the final vote in 2002, the Synod passed the resolution ‘to enter into a covenant relationship with the Methodist Church in Ireland’ unanimously. The Methodist Conference passed the same resolution in respect of the Church of Ireland with an overwhelming majority. The JTWP stood down in 2003, having set in place the Covenant Council.

The issue of episcope, with attendant implications for interchangeability of ministries, became the focus of the theological work of the Council. In 2005, 2006 and 2007, the Council presented a series of documents on episcope leading to a 2010 document, ‘Agreed principles on the Interchangeability of Ministries’.

It was recommended that a date be set by which there be

• Mutual involvement in the consecration of Bishops and dedication of Presidents. • Consequential interchangeable ministry. • Mutual celebration and affirmation of the presbyteral ministry of all of those ordained in both Churches, including those duly ordained in the past.

The governing bodies received the recommendation warmly as they did a second Statement presented in 2011.

By 2013, the Methodist Church had agreed an Order of Service for the Installation of the President of the Methodist Church which recognised the role of President as ‘Episcopal Minister’ noting that, though the language was new, the concept was not.

The Church of Ireland had worked on a Bill recognising personal, communal and collegial episcope in the polity of the Methodist Church and, in particular, the office and function of the President as ‘Episcopal Minister’.

Following the passing of the final stages of that Bill at the General Synod of 2014, the way was open for the installation of the President of the Methodist Church in Ireland as an Episcopal Minister. At Conference 2014, three bishops of the Church of Ireland were among those laying hands on the incoming President. The process was completed in 2015 when the President and two former Presidents were among those laying hands on the incoming Bishop of Limerick and Killaloe.

Practical issues of interchangeability require ongoing attention. However, two things are clear: • An ordained presbyter/priest of either church may administer Holy Communion in the other Church according to either rite or ceremony; • A presbyter/priest of one church ministering in the context of the other will be treated as being within the order and discipline of both churches

A group of leaders from each church is currently involved in identifying those issues which need the most urgent attention in order that the Covenant relationship may advance smoothly.

Throughout the entire journey, the reports to the governing bodies have urged that the two churches should embrace, in word and spirit, the opportunities offered by this special relationship. The Council urges the churches to celebrate this special relationship and particularly on 24 May, the date observed by ‘the people called Methodists’ as that on which John Wesley felt his heart ‘strangely warmed.’

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Born in Hebden Bridge, West Yorkshire to James Broadbent a Local Preachers and Susan née Clay. He married Emily Anna Collins the daughter of Rev Collins, Thomas. They had one child Emily M. who was 2 years old when her mother died in 1863. John Broadbent married Charlotte Elizabeth Stratton a few months later. They had at least 11 children. Following several circuit appointments of a year and occasional three years in 1865 he was appointed to Sunderland and then to North Shields. During these two appointments he became well respected as an outstanding evangelist, social reformer, and Temperance advocate. He started to preach evangelically temperance on the steps of Howard Street Library Sunderland. He continued this ministry in the Assembly Rooms which were later named Broadbent Hall. When he left the area his supporters in 1870 established the “Evangelistic Temperance Church” which became the Stephenson Street Congregational Church and later St Andrew’s URC. On a seven pointed star, white metal medallion, there is an inscription which reads ‘Reverend John Broadbent’ …‘Instituted the Evangelistic Temperance Union … 1865.’ On 23 August 1869 Broadbent was brought before the North Shields Police Court Bench by two public house landlords for preaching and causing an affray outside their establishments. Broadbent lost the case and an appeal was made to the quarter sessions. The ‘rate payers of the Borough of Tynemouth’ made a public appeal to pay for the case to be defended. A sum of around £100 was raised. The case was lost, and Broadbent was fined. He refused to pay believing himself to be innocent of the charge. He was committed to prison. An anonymous benefactor paid the fine and Broadbent was released. Whilst faithfully fulfilling another 18 years of ministry his health never fully recovered for his experience in the North East of England. He died aged 59 in Knighton on 16th December 1888.

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Leeds surveyor and architect, was born on 30 November 1862 at Woodhouse, Leeds, where his father, William Thackray, was a builder and contractor, who bought a disused quarry and a tract of land on Woodhouse Ridge and covered it with houses. Early supporters of the Woodhouse Mechanics Institute, John Thackray received part of his education there and also at the village’s St. Mark’s National School. He was appointed Assistant Building Surveyor to Leeds Corporation, 1887 to 1892, then for Sheffield, 1892 to 1895. He also taught construction at Bingley, Ossett and Pudsey. A Wesleyan Methodist, he served as society steward, chapel steward and treasurer. His practice was predominantly domestic and commercial, but in Leeds he was responsible for Trinity, Roundhay Road (1889) and Harehills Lane (1905) Wesleyan school-chapels.

Another family member and Methodist was Derek Linstrum (1925-1909) who after the war began working for the West Riding County Council Architects Office. Employed on restoring Bretton Hall for use as a teacher training college led to his developing an interest in conservation. From 1966 to 1971 he was senior lecturer at the Leeds School of Architecture, then in 1971 was Radcliff Reader and Director of Conservation Studies, University of York, finally from 1971 to 1973 being Professor of Architecture, University of Leeds. His researches resulted in a number of publications.

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Journalist, parliamentary candidate, vegetarian, and pacifist was born to a PM family in Swindon, Wilts.. At University College, Exeter, she became a socialist. After a short time as a teacher, she became the Secretary of the Women’s International League and then from 1928 Secretary of the Union of Democratic Control. Through the UDC she met the political journalist Kingsley Martin, newly appointed editor of the New Statesman, and this began a forty-year relationship which ended only with his death in 1969. It has been claimed that she was the only PM woman to stand for parliament: she stood unsuccessfully as the Labour candidate for Aylesbury in 1931, and for Wood Green in 1935.

As a journalist in Berlin in 1933, following the Reichstag fire she helped in the successful defence of Georgi Dimitrov Mihaylov (1882-1949), a Communist. She was also the Asian correspondent for the New Statesman and in her writings opposed colonialism; she was a strong supporter of independence in India, Burma, Indonesia, and Vietnam. She published more than a dozen books, including Hitler Rearms (1934), Europe Rises: The Story of Resistance in Occupied Europe (1943), Indo-China and World Peace (1954) and Himalayan Frontiers: a political review of British, Chinese, Indian and Russian Rivalries (1969). The British Special Intelligence Service watched her closely, believing she was a Soviet spy. She died in September 1970.

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Educationalist, author and children’s book illustrator and writer, was born at Muswell Hill on Christmas Day 1942, son of the Rev. Percy W. Mably (1911-95; e.m. 1937) and Ethel Mably, née Fisher. He was educated at Kingswood School, Westminster College, London and Oxford, and the Froebel Institute, London. He started teaching in London in 1964, and then at Furzedown College of Education, before moving in 1974 to the North East London Polytechnic, continuing there until 1980. He founded the International Institute for Teacher Education in 1981 and in the same year was awarded the Medal of Peace by Charles University, Prague, for services to international teacher education. Moving to the USA in 1989, he began writing and illustrating children’s books. He died in Maryland on 31 May 2020.

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Methodist Local Preachers, class leader, Sunday School teacher, temperance worker and politician, born 14 August 1873 at Dartmouth, the son of a shipwright. Educated at the town’s Board School, at nine he became a part-time worker as a newspaper boy, and worked full-time from thirteen. Two years later, the year he became a Methodist, he began an apprenticeship as a shipwright and in 1896 he started working at HM Dockyard, Devonport. In 1897 he married Agnes Ferris. He was admitted as a local preacher in 1891 and in 1934 his membership was in the Plymouth (Cobourg Street) ex-PM circuit.

Originally a Liberal, he joined the Labour Party in 1918, becoming its local leader. In 1911 he was elected to Devonport Borough Council, in 1914 to the Greater Plymouth Council, and served as an alderman from 1921 until 1945. He was mayor in 1926-7. He stood unsuccessfully for the Plymouth Drake constituency in 1923 and 1924, gained the seat in 1929, lost it in 1931, and failed to regain it in 1935; he was Plymouth’s first Labour member and the first royal dockyard worker to sit in Parliament. He was also on the executive committee of the Ship Construction and Shipwrights’ Association. He died on 28 May 1946.

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Born in 1926 at Sleetburn in the remote 1000 foot high Baldersdale in the North Yorkshire Pennines. When Hannah was 3 her father William rented the 80 acre Low Birk Hatt farm which he later bought. It was a lonely and remote place being one and a half miles from the nearest road. Four years later he died aged 37. The farm was run by her uncle and her mother Lydia Sayer nee Tallendine. Hannah was baptised in the Methodist Chapel and with her grandmother and mother went to Sunday evening services at Balderstone Methodist Chapel. When her uncle and then her mother died in 1958 the 32 year old Hannah ran the farm alone, without running water or electricity, on a frugal £5 a week. Two Methodist preachers who greatly influenced her were Rhoda Annie Dent (1915-1991) the travelling evangelist [later wife of Rev Ernald C. Nixon] and in 1935 John Wesley Kingston the Irish evangelist and founder of ‘The Kingston Worldwide Youth Movement'. In 1973 she was catapulted into public attention when Barry Cockcroft made a documentary Too Long a Winter for Yorkshire Television and ITV. With successive television documentaries she became an international celebrity. Hannah was the Guest of Honour at the prestigious Woman of the Year Gala at the Savoy Hotel, London. On 25 March 1992 she was featured in the television series This is Your Life. The programme ended with the Cockfield Methodist Male Voice Choir singing.

In 1989 suffering from illnesses cause by the extreme cold and hardship Hannah sold the farm and moved to Cotherstone where she became part of the Cotherstone Methodist Church community. Her funeral was held in a packed Barnard Castle Methodist Church on 16 February 2018. The lasting gift that Hannah has left is a wild-flower and nature reserve, 'Hannah's Meadow', managed by the Durham Wildlife Trust, and reflecting the fact that neither she nor her father used chemical fertilisers.

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The son of Anthony Steele, of Barnard Castle. His parents had entertained John Wesley. He took over the family business of leather-working at Barnard Castle. He was actively involved in the local WM society, as Sunday School teacher and local preacher, and made his theological library available to the itinerant preachers in the circuit. In 1857 he published a history of Methodism in Barnard Castle and the Dales, an area to which his great-grandfather, Jacob Rowell, had given many years of service as an itinerant. His sister Mary, who died in 1815, married Christopher Dove (see Dove family), of Darlington, Co. Durham, later of Leeds.

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Leeds WM, originated in Darlington, Co. Durham where Christopher (1783-1854) and William (1792-1855), sons of Christopher (1745-1816) and Jane (1758-1835) Dove, followed their father’s occupation of currier. Despite parental discouragement the younger Christopher became a WM in 1808, and the family gradually followed suit.

Christopher and William married and raised their families in Darlington before moving to Leeds in 1829, establishing a successful partnership in the town’s leather trade. Christopher settled in the superior neighbourhood of Park Square, while William was councillor for the West Ward from 1837-43; both brothers were Tories. Both were also active in Leeds Methodism, serving as Trustees and Class leaders. Christopher’s arrival helped to stabilise the Second Leeds Circuit after the dissension over the Leeds organ case, and he played an important role in the building of the new Oxford Place chapel.

Christopher Dove married twice. Through his first wife, Mary Steele (died 1815), he was connected to the Steeles of Barnard Castle; Steele, Anthony (1793-1861), historian of WM in Barnard Castle and the Dales, was his brother-in-law. His second wife, Mary Dunn(1790-1858), was aunt of Mary Cryer (née Burton), subject of a missionary memoir by Barrett, Alfred. In the next generation Christopher junior (1820-36) was memorialised by Peter M’Owan; Elizabeth (1821-47) and Jane (1832-1917) married the WM ministers John Holt Lord (1820-1902; e.m. 1840) and Henry R. Burton (1831-1903; e.m. 1855) respectively; Sarah (1823-89) married John Sloggett Jenkins (died 1900), who was Second Master at Woodhouse Grove School from 1852-55. William (1827-56) who married Jenkins’ sister Harriet in 1852, gained national notoriety when she died of strychnine poisoning in March 1856. William was tried for her murder at York Assizes, and despite mitigating evidence of alcoholism and mental instability, he was executed on 9 August 1856.

On the other side of the family, William senior’s son Christopher Wesley Dove (1825-95) owned a Leeds carpet manufacturing business, which subsequently passed to his brother Edward Parker Dove (1834-1904), a trustee of Headingley Wesleyan Chapel.

A third Dove brother, John (1794-1855) became an attorney in Leeds, and published A Biographical History of the Wesley Family: more particularly its earlier branches, which ran through several editions between 1833 and 1840.

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Industrialist and philanthropist, born in Sulten, North Germany, on 8 December 1806. After commercial training in Rostock he was invited in 1827 to move to Newcastle upon Tyne to work with Christian Allhusen in the corn trade. In 1840 Bolckow was persuaded by his brother-in-law the ironmaster John Vaughan (1799-1868) to invest in the iron industry. They established the Vulcan Ironworks in Middlesbrough and blast furnaces at Witton Park, near Bishop Auckland. The discovery of large iron ore deposits in the Cleveland hills facilitated the expansion of the business to become the largest on Teesside, with 10,000 employees and an annual payroll of £1 million. The partnership was formalised in 1853, and Bolckow, Vaughan and Co. became a limited liability company in 1865.

Bolckow was one of the twelve original commissioners appointed under the 1841 Middlesbrough Improvement Act and was the town's first mayor, following incorporation in 1853. He was elected unopposed as Liberal MP for Middlesbrough in 1868, when the town gained representation in parliament, having been naturalised a British subject in 1841. He retained the seat in 1874. He contributed most of the cost of the Middlesbrough Infirmary (1864), funded the Albert Park (1866-68), and gave generously to local schools. From 1856 he lived at Marton Hall, transferring his allegiance from Centenary WM to the local parish church. He died at Ramsgate on 18 June 1878, and was buried in Marton churchyard. A statue erected in Albert Park in 1891 now stands in Exchange Square.

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In settling the preaching-houses upon trustees, John Wesley had to ensure their continued use for the Methodist societies and by authorised Methodist preachers. Various forms of deed were tried, and the Large Minutes from 1763 prescribed a model, or pattern, deed which was a revised form of the 1751 settlement for Birchin Lane, Manchester. This limited the use to persons appointed by the annual Conference (later defined by the Deed of Declaration) and defined the approved doctrine to be preached. Successive Conferences encouraged the use of such forms, rather than local variants, and subsequent forms appeared in the Large Minutes and Code of Rules of 1797. In 1832 a new Model Deed was executed, which was legally able to be incorporated by reference into individual settlements, rather than requiring a full recital in each case. It also safeguarded the heirs of a trustee from inheriting responsibility for debts. In 1838 this new deed survived a protracted challenge by the incumbent of Llanbister in central Wales, with the result that its legal status was established.

The other branches of Methodism (e.g. PM, 1864; BC, 1863; MNC, 1846; UMFC, 1842 and 1865; UMC, 1908) used similar legal forms. All of these were superseded in 1932 by the Model Deed, still similar in form, which was authorised by the Methodist Church Union Act 1929. Existing church property could be transferred onto it by the trustees' deed of declaration and the vast majority was so transferred. Under the Methodist Church Act 1976, Model Deed property became subject instead to the Model Trusts.

See also Birstall Chapel Case; Doctrinal standards; North Shields Chapel Case

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Born in Kilburn, he trained as a teacher at Westminster College, London and Oxford, taught for four years (1910-14) in Kent, and served in the Royal Engineers during World War One. He entered the WM ministry in 1919 and was immediately sent to be Principal of the Methodist Boys' School at Lagos, Nigeria. He was a member of the Board of Education from 1926, first secretary of the Nigerian Christian Council, supervisor of Methodist schools in Western Nigeria, and Chairman of the French West Africa District from 1937-40 and 1943-48; under the Vichy regime he was compelled to leave Africa and take a home appointment in Penzance and St. Ives, Cornwall (1940-43). He died on 6 January 1961.

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Son of the Revd Charles Herbert Spivey (1873-1954; e.m. 1900), born at Wolverton on 7 July 1906 and educated at Elmfield College, York and Trinity College, Cambridge, He entered the PM ministry in 1930, and after a distinguished term of service in Bristol was appointed to Wesley Church, Cambridge, where he was also Chaplain to Methodist students at the university. From 1949-59 he was minister of Wesley's Chapel, London. A year in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe (formerly Southern Rhodesia)) followed, and then six years with the Church of South India (1960-66). In both settings teaching and training were central to his work. His final appointment was at Hinde Street Church, London, again with responsibility for university chaplaincy. In retirement at Sidmouth he continued to teach, offering courses in homiletics at Wesley College, Bristol. He contributed to a number of Cambridge Group manuals, and published a history of Wesley's Chapel (1974). He died on 10 October 1986.

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Leeds PM, local politician and trade unionist, was born in east Leeds on 21 January 1880 and baptised at the Anglo-Catholic parish church of St Saviour's. After elementary education at the local Board school Bill joined his father at Waterloo Pit, subsequently working at other collieries, including Waterloo Haigh, Woodlesford. Beginning working life in the year of the 1893 miners' strike perhaps influenced his later commitment to trade unionism and Socialism.

The family moved to Hunslet, where Bill met Harriet Ramsden (1878-1946), and they were married on Christmas Day 1902 at Zion PM chapel, Joseph Street. They remained committed Methodists and teetotalers, and their children were baptised at Zion. Hemingway was greatly influenced by W.E. Clegg, William Ernest, Leeds PM Local Preachers and Vice-President of Conference in 1928 and 1940.

A Labour activist, Hemingway was Secretary of the Leeds (South) Constituency Labour Party, and was elected to the Hunslet Board of Guardians in 1911 and re-elected in 1913. He was elected to Leeds City Council for the East Hunslet Ward in 1915, holding the seat until 1925. He was appointed a JP in 1924 and an alderman in 1926, a post he retained until 1967. He was Lord Mayor of Leeds in 1934-35.

Hemingway was appointed a checkweighman at Water Haigh by the Yorkshire Miners' Association in 1922, and was therefore involved in the strike of 1926. As miners drifted back to work he was charged with intimidating a group of strike-breakers and was fined £30. This, however, did not diminish his popularity. He was knighted in 1965, and retired from the Council two years later, dying in Leeds on 30 May 1967. In the post-1945 redevelopment of Hunslet, Hemingway Court, Garth and Gardens perpetuate his memory.

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The need to tackle racism within and without the Church remains an imperative for Methodists, and the Methodist Church has not always been exemplary in this regard. However there are a number of significant moments and changes in the Church’s internal governance and external witness which characterise the history of racial justice in modern British Methodism.

The post-war years and the Windrush Generation saw a great increase in the number of BAME people in the UK, a diversity which slowly started to be reflected in the Methodist Church. It is believed that the first Black person to be ordained into the British Methodist Church was the Revd George Pottinger in 1957.

Such diversity was not universally welcomed, however. In 1962 the Committee for the Care of Immigrants reported to Conference that it was deeply disturbed about the ‘emergence of colour prejudice.’ The committee opposed the Commonwealth Immigrants’ Act of 1962, which sought to reduce immigration from the Commonwealth.

A particularly notable trailblazer for black Methodists was Phoenix, Sybil, OBE. Arriving from Guyana in 1956, she became a prominent Methodist and celebrated community worker in South West London. In 1972, she became the first black woman to receive an MBE – for services to the community. She also co-founded MELRAW (Methodist and Ecumenical Leadership Racism Awareness Workshops) in 1981.

In 1971, the Community and Race Relations Committee replaced the Committee on Migration (which itself had replaced the Committee for the Care of Immigrants), making it the first body specifically responsible for racial issues within the Methodist Church.

In the context of the anti-apartheid movement in South Africa, the early 1970s were an active period for Methodist anti-racist campaigners. At the time, the call to divest from South Africa was gaining traction, and the Methodist Church banked with Midland, who were heavily invested in companies doing business in South Africa. Campaigners encouraged the Central Finance Board to put pressure on the bank, calls which were initially resisted. This lead some activists to take over the sound booth at one Methodist Conference during the CFB report – the idea being that the speakers were being silenced just as Black South Africans were being silenced. Midland Bank did eventually withdraw its investments from South Africa, and the Joint Advisory Committee on the Ethics of Investment (JACEI) was established in 1983 to advise CFB on its investment policies, including relating to racial discrimination.

In 1978 the Methodist Conference first explicitly stated that racism is a sin, a conviction which is now retained in CPD as Standing Order 013B: “The Methodist Church believes that racism is a denial of the gospel.”

The Connexional Racial Justice Office was established in 1984 to oversee and advise the Church’s work on these issues, with Weekes, Ivan being appointed as the first Secretary for Race and Community.

In 1985, the Ethnic Minorities in Methodism Working Group published the influential report A Tree God Planted. This was a challenging account of the experience of Black Methodists, containing comprehensive data and stories, which raised serious questions for the church. In the same year, Murray, Leon Albert, MBE became the first Black Vice-President of Conference.

Two years later came another important Conference report – Faithful and Equal. In receiving this report, Conference adopted the following definition of racism: “Allowing prejudice to determine the way power is used to the personal, social or institutional detriment of ethnic minority individuals or communities.” That same year, Methodist local preacher Paul Boateng became one of the first three black MPs elected to Parliament; he would later become the UK’s first black cabinet minister in 2003.

The Methodist Church often worked ecumenically on issues of racial justice – first through the Community and Race Relations Unit (CRRU) of the British Council of Churches, and then through its replacement - the Churches Commission for Racial Justice (CCRJ). Both made money available to projects and causes tackling racial injustice. Through the ecumenical Joint Public Issues Team, the Methodist Church has also spoken out more recently on issues relating to racial injustice, such as the End Hostility campaign, which criticised the racial discrimination enabled by the government’s “hostile environment” policy, regardless of immigration status.

One of the most enduring ecumenical projects is Racial Justice Sunday. This was started in 1989 by the Methodist Church, became ecumenical in 1995, and continues today. This takes place on the second Sunday in February, and resources are produced every year to help churches reflect, pray, and act on issues of racial injustice.

The murder of Stephen Lawrence in 1993 became a landmark moment in the history of racism in the UK, and was one by which the Methodist Church was directly and indirectly affected. The Lawrence family attended their local Methodist Church in Eltham, and so Methodist Minister and family friend David Cruise conducted Stephen’s funeral. In the wake of the murder, and the subsequent Macpherson Report, the Methodist Church’s Committee for Racial Justice encouraged the Conference to enter a period of serious introspection around the concept of institutional racism outlined in that report.

Two milestones in representation came in close succession as in 1998 Revd Ermal Kirby became the first Black Chair of District, and in 2000 Bhogal, Dr Inderjit Singh became the first BAME President of Conference.

In 2004, at a time when the British National Party were enjoying some electoral success, the Methodist Council passed a resolution stating: “The policies and practices of those who promote racism and religious intolerance are incompatible with the Methodist Church’s social witness, biblical teaching and our understanding of the love of God for all people.”

In 2009, the Conference went further, passing a motion which resolved that “being a member of any organisation whose constitution, aims or objectives promote racism is inconsistent with membership of the Methodist Church, or with employment which involves representing or speaking on behalf of the Methodist Church.” In the following year, the Conference amended SO 050 to state that preparation classes for Methodist membership “shall include an introduction to the doctrines, discipline and formal statements of the Methodist Church, including its belief that racism is a denial of the gospel.”

The EDI Toolkit, a resource equipping Methodists to “go beyond legal compliance” when it comes to Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion, was published in 2016. This features a module on Race which explores concepts, case studies and questions around racial justice.

In 2017 the Conference received the report 'The Unfinished Agenda: Racial Justice and Inclusion in the Methodist Church', which sought to assess the evidence of the last 50 years through A Tree God Planted, Faithful and Equal, and the EDI Toolkit and make proposals for working towards a shared model of an inclusive church. It included resolution 27/7: “The Conference, in confessing the sin of racism and seeking to repent of that sin, recognised the considerable amount of work still required of the whole Connexion in order to achieve greater equality, diversity and inclusion.”

The Inclusive Methodist Church Strategy which followed in 2020 aimed to embed EDI across the life of the Connexion. It defines the Church as one in which “all people can expect to be welcomed into a place of safety, where we are disciplined in rejecting any form of discrimination and in calling to account those responsible, in which diversity is celebrated as one of God’s gifts to us and not seen as an issue to be accommodated, and where our diversity is visible in our leadership and our selection processes ensure that.”

In July 2020, Revd Sonia Hicks became President-Designate of the Methodist Conference – the first Black person to be elected to that position.

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Bible commentator, WM Local Preachers and Anglican priest, born near Dolgellau on 20 January 1804, son of William and Elizabeth Humffrey. He was apprenticed to the Dolgellau printer Richard Jones, and adopted his name. By 1827 he was the managing printer for Welsh WM, continuing Richard Jones' publication of the journal Yr Eurgrawn from his base in Llanidloes, where he served as a town councillor and mayor. Jones was a WM Local Preacher and a prolific author; his popular commentary on the Bible, Y deonglydd beirniadol (1852) ran to eight editions and sold an estimated 80,000 copies. In 1853 Jones joined the Church of England. Ordained deacon (1853) and priest (1854) he served two benefices in Cardiganshire. He was granted a Civil List pension in 1881 and died at New Quay on 17 August 1887. His eldest son, J. Idrisyn Jones (1835-1916), entered the Congregational ministry, was a strong temperance advocate, and a leading British Israelite.

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Wolverhampton ironmaster and WM. Born in Bilston in 1827 and orphaned by the age of nine, he was educated at the Royal Orphanage School, Wolverhampton. He learned design and mechanical drawing as apprentice to John Duncalfe in Bilston, and his skills eventually led to employment in Hartill and Jackson's japanning firm and then, in 1854, to a partnership with Samuel Jackson. Sankey took sole control of the business in 1861, expanding the range of goods manufactured and also acquiring companies supplying raw materials for the production process. Until the early 1860s Sankey lived on the factory premises in Bilston, but he later moved to Wolverhampton, where the family had a long association with Darlington Street chapel. After several generations of family ownership and management, the firm was acquired by Guest Keen Nettlefold in 1920.

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Local preacher, temperance advocate and lecturer, and newspaper proprietor, he was born near Grindleton on 22 August 1813. The family moved to Clitheroe, then to Blackburn and then to Preston about 1825 on his father being appointed the watchman at Horrock's Mill, where both Thomas and his brother found employment in the weaving department. Preston led the way in the teetotal pledge, and Whittaker received some education in a night school run by Joseph Livesey, a founder of the teetotal movement. Married in Glossop at 19, he returned to Blackburn following a drunken brawl in 1835. Injury, unemployment and the loss of his first child triggered an emotional crisis and conversion to total abstinence later that year. He began a career as an eloquent and effective temperance lecturer, first in northern counties and then from 1837 for the New British and Foreign Temperance Society in London and the south-east.His first wife died in 1837, and in 1838 he married Louisa Palmer (1810-75). In 1849 he moved to Scarborough, using the town as a base for lecture tours both in the United Kingdom and America. He became active in Liberal politics there, was first elected to the town council in 1867 and was mayor in 1880-81. He was both a correspondent and columnist for the town's papers but his contributions were found to be too inflammatory by the editors. For a short time in the 1860s he owned his own paper The Watchman, then in 1877 acquired The Mercury and in 1882 began the still continuing Scarborough Evening News. He wrote two autobiographies, Life's Battles in Temperance Armour (1884), which went through at least three editions, and Brighter England and the Way to It (1891). He died on 20 November 1899. His funeral service was held at Westborough Wesleyan Chapel and he was buried in Scarborough's Dean Road Municipal Cemetery.

Whittaker's family included Sir Meredith Thompson Whittaker (1841-1931), ironfounder, newspaper owner, and chairman of the Press Association 1916-17, and Whittaker, Thomas Palmer, who succeeded to his father's temperance convictions.

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WM businessman, Liberal politican and prohibitionist, born on 7 January 1850 in Scarborough, the son of Whittaker, Thomas and Louisa Whittaker (nee Palmer) (1810-75). Whittaker was educated at Huddersfield College and entered business at the age of sixteen, selling hardware and iron goods as assistant to his elder brother Meredith Thompson Whittaker (1841-1931). From 1882 he developed interests in the newspaper industry, subsequently moving to London. He was also chairman and managing director of the Life Insurance Institution. A staunch Liberal, Whittaker was elected MP for Spen Valley in 1892 and retained the seat until his death, although in 1918 he was returned as a Coalition Liberal. His commitment to the Temperance cause created some tensions with his party allegiance; he was an advocate for prohibition on the Royal Commission on Licensing (1896-99), and energetic in canvassing support for the Minority Report which argued for a timetable for the withdrawal of licences without compensation. He chaired the Select Committee on Parliamentary Procedures in 1914 and the Royal Commission on the Importation of Paper in 1918: his connections with the newspaper industry were significant in this work. Knighted in 1906 and made a Privy Councillor in 1908, he died on 9 November 1919 while visiting Eastbourne, Sussex. He was survived by his wife Emma Mary (nee Theedam) (1849-1938).

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Pioneer PM missionary and author. Born at Old Lenton, Nottingham on 1 April 1842 he began preaching in 1858; an early influence was Dr Samuel Antliff (see Antliff brothers). He entered the ministry in 1865 and travelled in four circuits before joining R.W. Burnett (1842-1902) as the PM Church's pioneer missionaries to Fernando Po. Roe stayed in West Africa for two years (1870-72), publishing Mission to Africa (1873), West African Scenes (1874) and Fernando Po Mission: A Consecutive History (1882). A succession of English circuits followed his return from Africa, and he retired to St. Ives, Cornwall in 1899. A keen traveller, he advocated British Israelite views, notably in his Israel's World: Origin and Destiny of the British Race, Colonies and Empire (1884), and appeared in the frontispiece photograph of his Holy Land Tour (1910) dressed as Abraham. He attended the PM Conference at Hull in 1920, in order to be present at the celebration of the jubilee of the Fernando Po mission, and died on 7 October of that year.

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David Roe was born on 17 October 1847 to Anglican parents at Stone, Staffs.The family later moved to Cheddleton. After education at Leek Grammar School, at sixteen, as a result of a dream, he emigrated to the United States where he joined the Methodist Episcopal Church and then trained for its ministry at Wyoming College, Pennsylvania. A pastorate followed, but ill-health resulted in his returning to England where he trained for the Wesleyan ministry at Didsbury College. After successful rural appointments in Kington and Hereford, in 1879 he was sent to Mile End Road, Bethnal Green, where the Lycett Memorial Chapel replaced an iron chapel. In 1897 he went to the Bermondsey Settlement under Scott Lidgett and there was persuaded by C.H. Kelly to succeed William Warren Grigg as Superintendent of the Wesleyan Seamen's Mission. Under his leadership the new premises of the Queen Victoria Seamen's Mission were opened in 1902 and the Mission later became a separate circuit including the Canning Town chapel and Brunswick, Limehouse. He died on 3 April 1921.

Two brothers, both converted under PM auspices, also became ministers. Roe, Harvey entered the PM ministry in 1878. Bryan Roe' (1859-96; e.m. 1885) became a PM Local Preacher, but joined the Wesleyans during his apprenticeship. Recommended for the ministry in 1881, no candidates were accepted that year and he took the opportunity to train for eighteen months under Henry Grattan Guinness at Harley College. After working as an Evangelist in the Lincoln District, he was accepted as a candidate in 1883, and trained at Richmond College, London. He served in West Africa, where he became Chairman of the Lagos WM District. He died on 22 February 1896, travelling back to Britain for rest.

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PM minister (em 1878), born at Cheddleton, Staffs, to Anglican parents. His brothers Roe, David and Bryan Roe (1859-96; em 1885) were both WM ministers. Harvey entered the PM ministry and trained at the Sunderland PM Theological Institute. In 1885 he was sent to St George's Bay, West Africa, but ill-health caused by a shipwreck off the coast of Sierra Leone curtailed the appointment and he returned to England after a year. He made a significant contribution to establishing Primitive Methodism north-westwards from London. The circuits in which he itinerated were Watford (1895-1901) and Northwood (1902-09), and he established sixteen societies, including Harrow, Weldon Crescent; Northwood, High Street; and Watford, St Alban's Road: in all three cases the Leeds PM architects Howdill, Thomas were employed for the new chapels. He was appointed to lead the PM Birmingham Forward Movement in 1909. He retired to Harrow in 1923 and died on 7 December 1934.

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The college was founded in 1851 in Horseferry Road, London, to train teachers for Methodist day schools. Its buildings were designed by James Wilson. In 1872, on the opening of Southlands College, it became an all-male establishment with some students accepting posts in the new Board Schools. Its first three Principals, John Scott (1851-1868), James H. Rigg (1868-1903) and H.B. Workman (1903-1930) made an important contribution to the place of Methodist teacher training within the voluntary sector of higher education. Hemmed in by crowded urban property, the college was evacuated during the Great War to the very different environment of Richmond College. The emphasis on higher education led to an increasing number of entrants qualified for university, so that by 1930 everyone followed a four-year course comprising a London University degree and professional training.

In 1959, under the Principalship of H. Trevor Hughes, the college moved to Harcourt Hill, North Hinksey, Oxford, where it expanded and admitted women students. Non-graduate trainees reverted to the Certificate course until 1967, when a minority were able to study for the BEd (Oxon) degree. It was one of the few colleges of education to survive the institutional closures of the 1970s without losing its individuality or straying far from its original purposes. It maintained its emphasis on education and theology and, through its centre at Saltley, Birmingham, retained an interest in inner-city schooling.

In 1997 it had 2,457 full and part-time students following professional and academic courses, at levels ranging from certificate to doctorate, validated by the University of Oxford and the Open University. It was later adversely affected by a reduction in the number of teacher training students and changes to the Government's funding system which led to consideration of its future as a free-standing college and a decision by the Conference of 1999 that it should be taken over by Oxford Brookes University. A long lease of the Harcourt Hill campus (subsequently renewed in 2017 for a period of 99 years) was granted to the university, managing trusteeship being exercised by Westminster College Oxford Trust Ltd, whose board members are appointed by the Conference. Teacher training has continued on the campus, and University-funded work which is church-related continues there in the Oxford Centre for Methodism and Church History.

The Centre holds a number of collections relating to the history of Methodism, including the library of the Wesley Historical Society, the archives of the Oxford Institute of Methodist Theological Studies, the Voice of Methodism (VMA) and AVEC, documents on Anglican-Methodist Union, and the papers of several twentieth-century Methodists, including the Rev Dr Donald English, the Rev. Dr. Colin Morris and the Rev. William Gowland. In addition to these archive collections, the Centre houses the Smetham, James collection, and artworks from Methodist Church House.

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Began working life as a silk spinner and then in 1846, with two fellow workers, started a silk-spinning and hat-making business in Rochdale, Lancs. Watson pioneered the use of silk plush in hat-making, setting up the business of Thomas Watson and Son in Rochdale. He was elected to the Rochdale School Board and financed the building of the town's Infirmary. Watson, treasurer of the UMFC, was the first member of the denomination to enter Parliament. He was elected Liberal MP for Ilkeston in 1885, retained the seat in 1886, and held it until his death on 7 March 1887.

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Cornish shipping magnate, staunch Nonconformist, and politician, and member at Bedford Road MNC, St. Ives, Cornwall, born in the town on 26 December 1851. He came from a long line of Cornish shipowners, but showed no desire to go to sea, and was sent initially to work in London, acquiring business experience first in a bank and then with a tea merchant. Returning to St Ives in 1878, his commercial experience persuaded the family business to switch from sail to steam. By 1901 he had established a number of shiping companies, which were merged into one limited liability company, the Hain Steamship Co. Ltd, with twenty two steamers. The company lost eighteen ships during the First World War, with two more held by the Germans and another trapped in the Baltic. The company was sold to P&O and the India Steam Navigation Co. in 1917. Hain was Vice-President of the Chamber of Shipping, and President in 1910-11. He also owned the Cornish Telegraph, before selling it to the Cornishman.

A Gladstonian Liberal, Hain represented St Ives for thirteen years on Cornwall County Council and was mayor of the town six times. He was elected Liberal Unionist MP for St Ives, unopposed, in 1900 but switched to the Liberals in 1904 in opposition to Chamberlain's tariff reform proposals. For a combination of political and health reasons he did not stand for re-election in 1906. Knighted in 1910, he was appointed High Sheriff of Cornwall in 1912. His son-in-law Dennis Shipwright (1895-1984) was MP for Penrhyn and Falmouth 1922-23.

Hain's son, Edward (1887-1915), was educated at Winchester and New College, Oxford, and killed at Gallipoli on 11 November 1915. He is commemorated by the Edward Hain Memorial Hospital in St Ives.

Hain died on 20 September 1917. His home, Treloyhan Manor, designed by Silvanus Trevail, became a Wesley Guild hotel in March 1948.

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Industrialist, born 30 March 1852, son of George Mallinson (died 1885) and Elizabeth Mallinson (nee Dyson). He came from a Huddersfield family; his brother Joel (1848-1924, em 1872) was a WM minister, and author of History of Methodism in Huddersfield, Holmfirth and Denby Dale (1898). The family cotton business owned Victoria Mills, Earby. Mallinson was knighted for organising hospital equipment in Liverpool and ministering to the soldiers in the First World War. Although brought up a WM and married at Earby WM chapel, he became a PM and was Chairman of the Elmfield College, York Governors, unveiling the war memorial there and presiding at the diamond jubilee in 1924. He attended the PM Conference in 1922. Mallinson died at Earby on 1 July 1929.

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Theologian, liturgical scholar and World Methodism's leading ecumenist. He taught at The Queen's College, Birmingham 1973-79, before moving to America, first to Union Seminary, New York and then to Duke Divinity School, North Carolina. His Doxology (1980) was a pioneering attempt to write a systematic theology from a primarily liturgical perspective. He served on the Faith and Order Committee of the World Council of Churches from 1977 to 1991 and was co-ordinator of the 'Baptism, Eucharist, Ministry' process that produced the 'Lima Report' of 1982. His involvement from the late 1970s in various international bilateral ecumenical dialogues is reflected in his Methodists in Dialog (1995). He had an enormous influence on the Methodist-Roman CatholicismRoman Catholic dialogue, on which he served for 28 years, 25 of them as Methodist co-chair. He hoped to set up a dialogue with the Orthodox, but was frustrated in his aim by internal Orthodox differences over this at the time. His theological output was prodigious, nearly two hundred articles being listed at the time of his festschrift in 2003.

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The early Methodists distanced themselves from the popular 'sports' of their day such as bear- and bull-baiting, cock-fighting and bare-fisted prize-fighting, with the drunkenness and gambling that accompanied them. In the course of the nineteenth century these were displaced by sports with which Methodism could much more readily identify itself and church-based football, cricket and tennis clubs became common. But reservations about their worldliness lingered on. In the 1860s the committee of the Theological Institute discussed 'the necessity of physical exercise for the Didsbury students, their health having been in a very unsatisfactory state.' Only after considerable debate was it decided to provide 'gymnatic appliances … for both recreation and regulated exercise', together with a fives court; but 'cricket was expressly interdicted'.

Before World War II there was a Methodist Sports Association, with sections for different sports. We read of a Durham County Methodist Cup Tie and football teams around the country competed for the Methodist Recorder's 'All Britain Challenge Trophy' as late as 1954. There was a Wesleyan Cricket Association in London and tennis clubs associated with local churches were common. The extent to which sport had become acceptable in evangelical and liberal circles in the late Victorian Church found a Methodist example in the figurative use of it made by Thomas Waugh (1853-1932) in his book The Cricket Field of the Christian Life. Among the Methodist cricket teams surviving in 2005 were Kingston (Surrey), formed in 1904 at the Kingston PM church, Epsom Methodist and Midsomer Norton Methodist, formed in 1948 and still playing in the Somerset League. Today Methodists are actively involved in the organization 'Christians in Sport'.

Association Football: Charles Crump of Wolverhampton was a particularly important figure in the early days of both the Football League and he Football Association. Stanley Rous CBE (1895-1986), an international referee, was secretary of the Football Association 1934-1962 and President of FIFA 1961-1974.

Aston Villa FC is an example of clubs that had Methodist origins. Aston Villa Church was the successor in 1850 of Cherry Street Chapel and Wesley Chapel, Birmingham; it closed as a place of worship in 1962 and was demolished in 2005. A cricket club had been formed in 1872 as an activity of the Bible Class and the football club began as an offshoot of that two years later. Its first President, in 1877, was the Rev. Charles Beecroft (1844-1913; e.m. 1870), despite his being stationed not in Birmingham but at Wellington, Salop at that time. He emigrated in 1888 to New Zealand, where he became President of the New Zealand Conference in 1908. The club was very successful, turned professional in 1885 and was one of the founder members of the Football League in 1888. Another Football League club with Methodist origins was Accrington Stanley.

Everton FC was formed in 1878 as the St. Domingo Football Club, an offshoot of the young men's Bible class, by the MNC minister Benjamin Swift Chambers (1845-1901; e.m. 1869) during his first period as minister of St. Domingo chapel, 1877-1882. He was described as 'a powerful and winning personality' with a special concern for young people. Other Methodists played a leading part in the club's affairs.George Mahon was its chairman from 1892 until his death in 1908. Father and son, Henry and William Cuff, combined active membership at St. Domingo's with support for Everton FC. William Cuff (1868-1949), a prominent Liverpool solicitor, served as the club's secretary from 1901 to 1918 and as its chairman from 1921 until appointed chairman of the Football League in 1938. In its turn Everton gave rise in 1892 to Liverpool FC..

Individual Methodists were actively involved at a professional level. Charles and Arthur Sutcliffe, members at Longholme, Rawtenstall and strong temperance supporters, served on the Football Association committee 1898-1927, and Charles's son Harold Sutcliffe was involved with the Football League until 1967. Wilf Harrop was Vice-President of the League 1950-1956. Fred Howarth was FA Secretary 1935-1956 and was succeeded by Alan Hardacre 1957-1979.

??? !865-1930), born in the Gold Coast, was the first black professional to play in League football. Walter Tull (1888-1918), grandson of a Barbadian slave, was the secondll. David Murrell Jones (1904-1976; e.m. 1931) captained the London University football team in 1931, while a student at Richmond College and played regularly for Portsmouth F.C. Reserves while stationed in Portsmouth Circuit 1932-34. Billy Liddell (1921-2001) was an outstanding footballer in the post-war period. Gary Shelton began his professional career with Walsall; his one appearance in the England XI was in 1985.. Alan Merritt (Manchester United) is a local preacher in the Stretford and Urmston Circuit and Howard Kendall (Preston, Birmingham City and Everton) is a church organist. Among ministers who were former professional footballers, Norman H. Hallam (1920-97; e.m. 1949) and Philip J. Lockett (e.m. 1969) played for Port Vale. Dr. Leslie A. Newman was a qualified FA referee. John Motson, football commentator with the BBC since 1968, is a son of the manse.

Two of the Manchester United FC party killed in the Munich air crash in February 1958 were Methodists. The team coach, Bert Whalley, was a member at Trafalgar Square church, Ashton-under-Lyne, and the trainer, Tom Curry, had played for Newcastle United for 17 years and was a member at Gorse Hill church, Manchester.

Rugby Football: The UM minister Frank H. Chambers OBE (e.m. 1903; d. 1957) was a prominent figure in the world of Rugby League. J. Clifford Gibbs (b.1903), an old boy of Queen's College, Taunton, played Rugby for England and the Harlequins and was reputed to be 'the fastest wing-threequarter that ever played for England'.

Cricket: W.G. Grace, one of the monumental figures in the history of cricket, was of Methodist stock. In first-class cricket, Jack Bond captained Lancashire for many years. Wilfred Wooller, captain of Glamorgan, was an old boy of Rydal School. Though not a church member, Jack Hobbs attended one of the South London Missions during his cricketing days at the Oval. Godfrey Evans, the England wicket-keeper, was an old boy of Kent College, Canterbury. Harold Dennis ('Dickie') Bird, a lifelong Barnsley Methodist, was an internationally acclaimed umpire.

Rowing: Conrad Skinner was cox of the Cambridge boat in three successive Boat Races.

Tennis: Dorothy Round was an outstanding tennis player, who won honours at Wimbledon between the wars. John Thorneycroft Hartley, winner of the men's singles at Wimbledon in 1879 and 1880 and runner-up in 1881, was descended from strong Methodist families in the West Midlands; he himself entered the Anglican priesthood.

Car Racing: The car designer and rally driver Donald M. Healey was the son of staunch Methodist parents at Perranporth, where they kept a shop. He made a name for himself by winning the first Monte Carlo Rally. Despite marrying a Methodist, he was not in his later years actively associated with the church, but there is a memorial window to him in St Michael's parish church at Perranporth and he is commemorated by a cross on the front of the Methodist church and a brass plaque inside.

Sir Arthur Monro Sutherland the Newcastle industrialist and philanthropist, was owner of Aston Martin from 1932 to 1944 and was heavily involved in car racing. Sir Arthur, as Chairman of the Directors, had bailed Aston Martin out twice. He was then persuaded by his son Gordon and his friend Lord Ridley of Northumberland (a racing enthusiast and holder of various speed records) that the development of racing engines and associated involvement in competitive racing would be to the company's advantage. His cars twice won the Rudge-Whitworth Cup (for the best ranked marque) in the 24 Heures du Le Mans. Fay Taylour, a woman motorcycle speedway rider, drove for him in the "Mussolini Gold Cup" of 1934 and finished fourth. His most successful works driver was St John "Jock" Horsfall who drove the 2-litre Speed Model to success in the Leinster Trophy and to second place in the RAC Trophy Tourist Race at Donnington Park, beating the more fancied BMWs. In addition, many privately sponsored drivers took to Astons. The swansong of Sir Arthur's involvement in racing was in August 1939 when Gordon drove an Aston in the last race at Brooklands at an average speed of over 98 mph.

See also names of individual Sportsmen/women listed under 'Occupations'.

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American evangelist and exponent of scriptural holiness, born in New York on 18 December 1807. She was the daughter of an expatriate English Methodist from Sheffield, who had been converted after hearing John Wesley preach. She experienced conversion in early life and at the age of 19 was married to Dr. Walter C. Palmer (1804-1883), a New York physician who shared her desire to promote spiritual holiness. The loss of two children in infancy caused her to become deeply concerned about her spiritual state and led to the step of personal consecration to Christ in July 1837, in which she found the assurance of entire consecration. She then became deeply involved in the movement for greater stress on the 'second blessing' element in Methodist teaching on holiness, chiefly through a Tuesday meeting for the promotion of holiness started by her sister Sarah Lankford for the women of the Allen Street Methodist Church, but later open to men also. Becoming its leader, she ran this meeting for the rest of her life.

From a rather wide interpretation of the words in Matthew 23:19, 'the altar that sanctifieth the gift', she taught that when a believer's life is totally consecrated to Christ, entire sanctification is instantly wrought and should be claimed by faith and testified to immediately. The Tuesday meetings, held in the Palmers' drawing room, drew large attendances, including many ministers and even two bishops, and many responded openly to the 'altar call'. Phoebe Palmer's doctrine became known as the 'shorter way' to the enjoyment of holiness in contrast to the more gradual approach more often taught. The Palmers toured Britain between 1859 and 1863, holding crowded meetings in many towns and cities. They edited a periodical called The Guide to Holiness, while Phoebe herself published seven books (e.g. The Way of Holiness, 1850) and in 1850 founded the first Protestant slums mission in New York. She has been credited with being the chief influence behind the headsprings of the 1859 Revival, described in her Four Years in the Old World (1866) and the inspiration that led Catherine Booth to take up public ministry in the future Salvation Army. She also published Four Years in the Old World (1866). She was an opponent of slavery and of the liquor trade and an advocate of women's rights. She died on 2 November 1874.

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Women have played an undeniably important, but not undisputed, role in Methodism ever since the days of John Wesley. The organization of the early societies gave women ample opportunity to exercise their gifts as class leaders, teachers, carers and housekeepers. Though he placed restrictions on their preaching, Wesley recognized that some women had an 'extraordinary' ministry and permitted them to give brief addresses at what were to be called prayer meetings rather than preaching services. On one occasion when a young preacher proposed a toast 'to the ladies', Wesley is said to have reproved him, saying, that he should have called them 'sisters'. The cost of being the wife of one of the early itinerant preachers is spelled out by Janet Kelly (2013).

After Wesley's death the Conference of 1803 pronounced 'preaching by women both unnecessary and generally undesired' and ordered women preachers to address only those of their own sex. But this did not deter some 25 women already preaching publicly from continuing to do so, notably Mary Fletcher and Mary Taft who corresponded extensively with one another. Despite considerable opposition, a number of new women preachers emerged in WM during the first half of the nineteenth century.

In the PM and the BC connexions, some women were accepted as full-time preachers and pastors, though discrimination in other respects continued.(The BC Minutes in 1819 list fourteen women who were recognised as itinerants at that time.) At the time of the Union of 1907, only one 'Female Preacher', Lillie Edwards at Hastings, was listed in the BC stations. Her disappearance from the stations of the UM Church in 1908 probably reflects the fact that the MNC and UMFC had never approved of women ministers.

Women were not admitted to the WM Conference until late in the 19th century. The first was Catherina Dawson, in 1894.

Shortly before the Union of 1932, a joint committee was set up to discuss the ordination of women. It reported to the Conference of 1933 that it could find no reason for disqualifying women from the same ministry as men. But the Conference of 1934 rejected a scheme for the ordination of women. New proposals, brought to the Conference of 1938, were approved, but then delayed by the outbreak of war. The Conference of 1945 again declared its willingness to ordain women and referred the matter to the Synods. But the Conference of 1948 declined to admit women to the ministry.

The question was reopened in 1959, when a committee was appointed to consider the status of deaconesses and the admission of women to the ministry. It reported inconclusively to five successive Conferences. In 1965 its recommendation raising the status of deaconesses was accepted, but Conference resolved that, whilst accepting in principle the ordination of women, it would not take unilateral action during the Anglican-Methodist negotiations. When these failed, Conference finally accepted the admission of women to the ministry and the first British Methodist ordinations took place in 1974. (The Rev. Peggy Hiscock had already been ordained in the United Church of Zambia in 1968.)

The first woman to become President of the Conference was Dr K.M. Richardson in 1992. Meanwhile the role of lay women had been recognized in the election of Mrs Mildred Lewis as the first woman Vice-President in 1948, followed by an increasing number of others since. In 2001 both the Presidency and Vice-Presidency were held by women for the first time (Dr. Christina Le Moignan and Mrs.Ann Leck). The wardenship of the Deaconess Order remained ministerial and male until the appointment of Sister Sheila Parnell as 'Deaconess Warden' in 1980. It is now generally accepted that all committees of the Methodist Church include women and all offices in the Church are open to women as well as men. A leading figure in this development was Pauline M. Webb, who held various connexional and ecumenical offices, though she herself was never ordained.

A further transformation in the women's movements of the Methodist Church in Britain took place on 1st July 2011, when Women's Network and the British Unit of the World Federation of Methodist and Uniting Church Women (WFMUCW) joined together as part of Methodist Women in Britain (MWiB), a new movement aiming to develop the work of training pioneered by Women's Fellowship, along with the World Church emphasis of Women's Work, both of which had been continued through Women's Network with its motto of 'encouraging, enabling and equipping' women. MWiB is committed to finding new ways to engage with women throughout British Methodism and ecumenical churches as well as linking them with women around the world. MWiB operates through a brand new website (www.mwib.org.uk), regular newsletters, regional, national and international conferences and training events. It is run by a small executive of volunteers and a larger Forum, on which each district is represented, along with other areas of women's activity in the church. Creative spirituality along with a passion for social justice in a global context shape the activities and emphases of the movement.

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WM local preacher and circuit steward, born in Manchester, he was educated at Wadham College, Oxford. He became a magistrate and Deputy Lieutenant for Staffordshire and was Liberal MP for Newcastle-under-Lyme 1865-1886. He was opposed to raising the educational requirements for local preachers. He published Revivalism (1868), The Present Position of Wesleyan Methodism (1871) and The Itinerant System Considered in Reference to the Future of Wesleyan Methodism and the Forward Movement (1892). He was one of the British Wesleyan representatives to the first Ecumenical Methodist Conference in 1881.

He first visited New Zealand in 1885 and in 1892 settled at Piako in the Waikato region of North Island, where he established an extensive farming operation. Of independent means and a Liberal in politics, he failed to enter Parliament in 1890 and again in 1893, but later became a member of the Piako County Council.He was an active local preacher, intensely interested in evangelism. He supported the spread of Methodist work by local preachers in his employment and was involved in the short-lived re-establishment of Prince Albert College for ministerial training in 1895. The Conference Lecture of 1893 by C.H. Garland on the authority of the Bible aroused considerable public debate, to which Allen contributed on the conservative evangelical side. On his return to Britain he was involved in the controversy sparked by George Jackson's 1912 Fernley Lecture and he took a leading part in the formation of the Wesley Bible Union. He died on 15 January 1915.

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The AMEC and African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church are Churches of American origin with several small congregations located in the London area. The AME Church originated in Philadelphia in 1787, when black members separated from St. George's ME Church under the leadership of Richard Allen. The denomination was officially organized in 1816 and is the largest of the black Methodist bodies. The AME Zion Church was formed out of John Street ME Church, New York, when black members built Zion Chapel, but maintained close relations with the ME Church until 1821. Both bodies have work in Africa and the Caribbean.

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