Pietism was a spiritual movement which arose in Germany in the latter half of the seventeenth century as a protest against what was perceived to be the growing arid intellectualism ofLutheranism. Its main proponent was Philip Jakob Spener (1635-1705), whose tract Pia Desideria prescribed the way to spiritual renewal, including personal conversion, systematic Bible study, and good works as expressive of true faith. Pietism was further promoted by the life and work of A. H. Francke (1663-1727) whose Pietas Hallensis was an account of the movement's activities at Halle University. Pietism deeply influenced Count von Zinzendorf (1700-60) and the Moravians, some of whom, in turn, strongly influenced the Wesley brothers.

  • P.J. Spener, Pia Desideria (1964)