UM and Methodist minister, he was born in Bristol on 21 June 1898 and educated at Shebbear College. He trained for the UM ministry at Victoria Park College. From 1932 until 1945 he was a Chaplain to the Forces, then returned to circuit work until his retirement in 1963. His interest in social and historical studies gained him an Oxford B.Litt and a PhD from Sheffield University. His publications included Nonconformity and Social and Economic Life (1935) and Wesley, a Man with a Concern (1950). He died at Upper Poppleton, Yorks, on 20 September 1974.