WM missionary appointed to Central China in 1895, where he helped to prepare the Union Version of the Chinese Bible. During World War I he worked with Chinese labourers in France. Returning to China in 1922, he taught at Union Theological College, Changsa and from 1930 served with the Christian Literature Society. Interned by the Japanese 1943-45, he superannuated in 1946. He wrote several books on China, including Lives of Chu and Lo (two Chinese ministers) (1906), and edited an enlarged edition of William Scarborough's Collection of Chinese Proverbs (Shanghai, 1926). He died in Hull on 12 May 1958.