Early itinerant, born in Perthshire. He enlisted in the army and while stationed in Ireland came under Methodist influence, was converted and began preaching. He was greatly encouraged to recognise his calling when he heard John Wesley and Thomas Walsh preaching in Ireland. Leaving the army, he began travelling with Wesley in 1765 in English, Scottish and Irish circuits. He spent twenty eight years as an itinerant, being especially gifted in preaching in Gaelic in the Scottish Highlands. He was noted for the help and encouragement he gave to younger preachers. He died on 13 May 1791 and was buried in John Wesley's grave at City Road Chapel.