WM temperance advocate, born in the Rossendale Valley, Lancs., in 1831. He was self-taught, having begun work in a cotton mill at the age of 8. He and his father started a cotton-spinning business near Bury in 1851 and after his marriage he built a large mill at Tottington. He became an enthusiastic advocate of temperance. His book on the drink question, Our National Resources, and how they are Wasted (1871), based on an earlier pamphlet, became a best-seller and established him as a leading figure in the temperance movement. In 1876 he published Crime in England and Wales in the Nineteenth Century, in which he advocated restriction on drink outlets. He was a strong supporter of the United Kingdom Alliance and helped to introduce Good Templarism into England. An active Wesleyan throughout his life, he died in Southport on 26 February 1886.