Trade unionist born at Shebbear 10 March 1840 and educated at Shebbear College, North Devon. By the mid-1860s he was prominent in the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners,becoming its General Secretary in 1871. During this period he was elected to the Trade Union Congress' Parliamentary Committee, serving as its chairman from 1876 to 1879. On being appointed a Factory Inspector in 1881, he resigned from his trade union posts. Retiring in 1905, he died on 4 February 1923.