Missionary in South Africa from the age of 20. After working with Barnabas Shaw in Leliefontein, he ministered among the Batswana and trekked with the Barolong group as they were forced by tribal warfare and then by scarcity of natural resources to leave Transvaal and settle in Thaba 'Nchu. He published a Tswana grammar and NT, ministered to the Afrikaner Voortrekkers who made Thaba 'Nchu their headquarters in 1836/37 and in 1842 accompanied the British forces who took control of Natal. He built the first church in Durban. Resigning from the ministry in 1847 after a clash with the mission authorities, he later ran a newspaper, founded a bank, served on the first Natal Legislative Council and was repeatedly mayor of Pietermaritzburg, where he died in 1866.