missionary in India, was born of Presbyterian stock at Fyvie, Aberdeenshire, on 31 December 1846. He came under Methodist influence in Manchester, was trained at Headingley College and in 1876 sailed for India, where he made a study of Hindu religious and philosophical literature. Working among Tamils in the Madras area (from 1886 at the Hindu stronghold of Tiruvallur), with his colleague William Goudie he pioneered work in the villages. His open-air preaching was particularly effective and he won the confidence of many Hindus, being elected as one of their representatives to the Indian National Congress. Failing health forced him to return home in 1892. He died at Wednesbury on 16 May 1905.