WMA minister, he was born in Scarborough, but early moved to London, where he became a successful builder. He was expelled from the WM Church for writing a pamphlet on the Leeds organ case and joining in the agitation over the Theological Institution. He became the chief architect of the WMA, planning the Foundation Deed (1840) which embodied its fundamental principles. He was President of the Association three times, Connexional Secretary several times and thirteen years its editor. A clear thinker and powerful debater, he was viewed with some suspicion by the Reformers of 1849 as a 'Warrenite Bunting'. But despite his personal antipathy to James Everett, he shared with him the creation of the UMFC in 1857 and was elected its second President in 1858. In addition to many polemical writings, he drew up a Covenant Service for the UMFC and 'Directions to Penitents and Believers'. He died suddenly at Clevedon on 28 July 1862 on his way to the Annual Assembly.