Socialist, sociologist, academic and writer, especially interested in working-class culture, was born 24 September 1918 at LeedsLeeds, the son of a boilermaker. Orphaned at eight, he went to live with his grandmother, in Hunslet, an industrial and working-class community south of the city centre. Here he came under Primitive Methodist Primitive Methodism influence. A grammar school education was followed by the University of Leeds and war service. He held a number of university posts at Hull, Leicester, Birmingham before finally becoming Warden of Goldsmith’s University of London. He served on a number of public bodies including the Arts Council and the Royal Shakespeare Company.