WM missionary in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and India. He was born at Preston, Lancs. He served in Ceylon during nearly 30 years (1847-1875) with one short interval (1849-1852) in southern India. Despite his lack of college training, he became familiar with the Tamil language and identified himself closely with Tamil life and culture. He devoted himself to the task of training a native ministry and promoting a self-supporting Church. Back in England, as one of the Missionary Secretaries from 1875, he had particular responsibility for the finances. In 1879 he was sent on a visit to the South Africa Missions and presided over the meetings which brought into being an autonomous South African Conference. He died at Crouch Hill, Dorset on 11 October 1889.